B16alphaGal melanoma vaccine
A whole cell melanoma cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. B16alphaGal melanoma vaccine contains three types of human melanoma cell lines that are genetically engineered to express the alpha(1,3)-galactosyl (alphaGal) epitope on cell surfaces. The agent stimulates a hyperacute rejection of whole melanoma cancer cells expressing alphaGal epitopes, initiated by opsonization by anti-alphaGal antibodies and followed by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cell lysis. This results in the stimulation of a broader cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response (CTL) directed against tumor antigens on melanoma cells that do not express alphaGal. AlphaGal is not normally expressed in humans because alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase (Alpha-GT), the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of alphaGal epitopes on glycoproteins and glycolipids, is not naturally present in humans and other primates.
A mouse-derived anti-human CD19 monoclonal antibody linked to pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) antiviral protein (PAP) with antileukemic activity. The monoclonal antibody portion specifically binds to the CD19 antigen, a cell surface molecule normally expressed only by B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells and over-expressed in B-lineage lymphocytic leukemia cells. Following internalization, PAP, a plant hemitoxin and a ribosome-inactivating protein, is cleaved from the immunoconjugate and released into the cytoplasm where it enzymatically removes a single adenine base from a conserved, surface exposed loop sequence of rRNA leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and cell growth, but not necessarily cell death.
B7-DC cross-linking antibody rHIgM12B7
A recombinant form of the monoclonal IgM antibody M12 isolated from a Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia patient (rHIgM12) with potential immunomodulating activity. B7-DC cross-linking antibody rHIgM12B7 binds and crosslinks the B7 co-stimulatory family member B7-DC (PD-L2) on dendritic cells (DCs), antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in the human immune response. This results in enhanced activation of DCs; enhanced antigen-presenting activity; and increased production of immunomodulatory cytokines (especially interleukin 12); and may potentiate a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia B cells.
A complex of cyclic polypeptide antibiotics, mainly bacitracin A, produced by spore-forming organisms belonging to the licheniformin group of the Bacillus subtilis with antibacterial activity. Bacitracin binds to C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a biphosphate lipid transport molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall. The binding interferes with the enzymatic dephosphorylation of the C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate and prevents peptidoglycan synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial cell growth.
A synthetic chlorophenyl-butanoic acid derivative with muscle relaxant activity. Baclofen acts as a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist specific for GABA-B receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). At spinal and supraspinal sites, this agent reduces excitatory transmission.
A topical preparation of baclofen, amitriptyline, and ketamine compounded in a penetration-enhancing polaxamer-lecithin organogel (PLO) with potential antineuralgic activity. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue baclofen appears to activate the inhibitory GABA(B) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, which may result in hyperpolarization of the neuronal cell membrane and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Amitriptyline likely produces antineuralgic effects via modulation of multiple subtypes of glutamate (Glu) receptors, independent of its antidepressant actions. Ketamine displays complex pharmacologic actions including biogenic amine uptake inhibition, interaction with opioid receptors, and inhibition of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Stimulation of GABA(B) receptor activity, modulation of Glu receptor activity, and inhibition of NMDA receptor activity may be of benefit in managing neuropathic pain.
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
An orally bioavailable 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Bafetinib specifically binds to and inhibits the Bcr/Abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase, an abnormal enzyme produced by Philadelphia chromosomal translocation associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This agent also inhibits the Src-family member Lyn tyrosine kinase, upregulated in imatinib-resistant CML cells and in a variety of solid cancer cell types. The inhibitory effect of bafetinib on these specific tyrosine kinases may decrease cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. CML patients may be refractory to imatinib, which sometimes results from point mutations occurring in the kinase domain of the Bcr/Abl fusion product. Due to its dual inhibitory activity, the use of bafetinib has been shown to overcome this particular drug resistance.
(Other name for: 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate ointment)
A bioreductive, alkylaminoanthraquinone prodrug with antineoplastic activity. Under hypoxic conditions, often seen in solid tumors, banoxantrone (AQ4N) is converted and activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are upregulated in certain tumors, to the cytotoxic DNA-binding agent AQ4. Banoxantrone intercalates into and crosslinks DNA, and inhibits topoisomerase II. This results in an inhibition of DNA replication and repair in tumor cells. Combined with conventional therapeutic agents, both oxygenic and hypoxic regions of tumors can be targeted.
(Other name for: entecavir)
A synthetic triterpenoid compound with potential antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory activities. Bardoxolone blocks the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2), two enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. This agent also inhibits the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and the expression of Bcl-3; Bcl-3 is an IL-1-responsive gene that preferentially contributes to MMP-1 gene expression.
The sulfate salt of barium, an alkaline, divalent metal. Barium sulfate is quite insoluble in water, and is used as a radiopaque agent to diagnose gastrointestinal medical conditions. Barium sulfate is taken by mouth or given rectally.
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
A recombinant, chimeric, human-murine monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R alpha) with immunosuppressant activity. Basiliximab selectively binds to and blocks IL-2R alpha, expressed on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes, thereby preventing interleukin-2 binding and inhibiting the interleukin-2-mediated activation of lymphocytes.
A synthetic pentafluorophenylsulfonamide with potential antineoplastic activity. Batabulin sodium covalently binds to and selectively modifies the beta 1, beta 2, beta 3, and beta 4 isotypes of beta tubulin at a conserved cysteine residue, resulting in disruption of microtubule polymerization, collapse of the cytoskeleton, an increase in chromosomal ploidy, cell cycle arrest, and tumor cell apoptosis.
An IgG3 monoclonal antibody directed against anionic phospholipids with potential antineoplastic activity. Chimeric anti-phosphotidylserine monoclonal antibody binds to anionic phospholipids in a beta 2-glycoprotein I-dependent manner, inhibiting tumor growth by stimulating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to tumor vessels.
A water-soluble camptothecin derivative conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety exhibiting antineoplastic activity. BAY 56-3722 stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex and forms an enzyme-drug-DNA ternary complex. As a consequence of the formation of this complex, both the initial cleavage reaction and religation steps are inhibited and subsequent collision of the replication fork with the cleaved strand of DNA results in inhibition of DNA replication, double strand DNA breakage and triggering of apoptosis. The peptide carbohydrate moiety of this agent stabilizes the lactone form of camptothecin in blood.
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)
BCG intravesical solution
A solution containing an attenuated, live culture preparation of the
Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) strain of Mycobacterium bovis with potential immunostimulating activity. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, upon intravesical administration, attenuated, live BCG bacteria in the solution come into direct contact with the bladder wall, inciting an antitumor granulomatous inflammatory reaction.
A vaccine containing bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, with non-specific immunoadjuvant and immunotherapeutic activities. Although the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is unclear, immunization with BCG vaccine likely activates a Th1 cytokine response that includes the induction of interferon. Vaccination with BCG vaccine may be immunoprotective against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
bcr-abl (b2a2)-derived peptide vaccine
A peptide vaccine consisting of the bcr-abl b2a2 fusion oncoprotein, frequently expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the bcr-abl (b2a2)-derived peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl b2a2 fusion protein. Fusion genes in CML typically result from the fusion of either BCR exon b2 or BCR exon b3 to ABL exon a2, a 'b3a2' or a 'b2a2' fusion.
bcr-abl (b3a2)-derived peptide vaccine
A peptide vaccine consisting of the bcr-abl b3a2 fusion oncoprotein, frequently expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the bcr-abl (b3a2)-derived peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl b3a2 fusion protein.
Fusion genes in CML typically result from the fusion of either BCR exon b2 or BCR exon b3 to ABL exon a2, a 'b3a2' or a 'b2a2' fusion.
bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint-derived multipeptide vaccine
A multipeptide vaccine consisting of five peptides derived from the bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint fusion protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint-derived multipeptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint fusion protein.
In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), fusion genes typically result from the fusion of either bcr exon b2 or exon b3 to abl exon a2, resulting in either a b3a2 or a b2a2 gene fusion product.
bcr-abl peptide vaccine
A multivalent antineoplastic vaccine comprised of the bcr-abl oncogene breakpoint fusion peptide that elicits a bcr-abl specific T-cell immune response.
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine and prednisone, used for the treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
Bead Block Compressible Microspheres
(Other name for: PVA microporous hydrospheres)
A synthetic diethylaminoethyl analogue of the indolocarbazole glycoside antineoplastic antibiotic rebeccamycin. Becatecarin intercalates into DNA and stabilizes the DNA-topoisomerase I complex, thereby interfering with the topoisomerase I-catalyzed DNA breakage-reunion reaction and initiating DNA cleavage and apoptosis.
(Other name for: carmustine)
The dipropionate salt of a synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. After cell surface receptor attachment and cell entry, beclomethasone enters the nucleus where it binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production.
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)
(Other name for: pyridoxine hydrochloride)
A transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) antisense gene-modified allogeneic tumor cell vaccine with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Belagenpumatucel-L is prepared by transfecting allogeneic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with a plasmid containing a TGF-beta2 antisense transgene, expanding the cells, and then irradiating and freezing them. Upon administration, this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against host NSCLC cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation; vaccine immunogenicity may be potentiated by suppression of tumor TGF-beta2 production by antisense RNA expressed by the vaccine plasmid TGF-beta2 antisense transgene. Elevated levels of TGF-beta2 are frequently linked to immunosuppression in cancer patients and may be inversely correlated with prognosis in patients with NSCLC.
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against B-Lymphocyte stimulator protein (BlyS or TNFSF13B) with potential immunomodulating activity. Belimumab specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of BlyS, thereby preventing the binding of BlyS to B-lymphocytes. This inhibits the maturation of B-lymphocytes and may induce apoptosis in B-lymphocytes. In addition, it may decrease B-lymphocyte proliferation and/or survival. BlyS, a member of TNF family supporting B-lymphocyte maturation and survival, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and B-lymphocyte malignancies.
A novel hydroxamic acid-type histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Belinostat targets HDAC enzymes, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, promoting cellular differentiation, and inhibiting angiogenesis. This agent may sensitize drug-resistant tumor cells to other antineoplastic agents, possibly through a mechanism involving the down-regulation of thymidylate synthase.
The hydrochloride salt of the semi-synthetic camptothecin analogue belotecan with potential antitumor activity. Belotecan binds to and inhibits the activity of topoisomerase I, stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I-DNA, which inhibits the religation of single-stranded DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase I; lethal double-stranded DNA breaks occur when the topoisomerase I-DNA complex is encountered by the DNA replication machinery, DNA replication is disrupted, and the tumor cell undergoes apoptosis. Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that mediates reversible single-strand breaks in DNA during DNA replication.
The sodium salt of bemiparin, a second generation, synthetic, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) with anticoagulant activity. Derived, after depolymerisation and fractionation, from medical-grade porcine unfractionated heparin (UFH), bemiparin has an average molecular weight of 3,600 daltons and has a higher anti-factor Xa/anti-factor IIa ratio (8:1) than first-generation LMWHs. This anticoagulant binds to antithrombin III, thereby enhancing the inactivation of activated Factor X (Factor Xa) and, to a lesser extent, activated factor II (Factor IIa). Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of bemiparin is associated with lower incidences of major bleeding, osteoporosis, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Bemiparin also promotes a greater release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor than UFH or dalteparin.
(Other name for: diphenhydramine hydrochloride)
The hydrochloride salt of benazepril, a carboxyl-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, benazepril is metabolized to its active form benazeprilat. Benazeprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II, resulting in vasodilation. Benazeprilat also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow.
The hydrochloride salt of bendamustine, a bifunctional mechlorethamine derivative with alkylator and antimetabolite activities. Bendamustine possesses three active moieties: an alkylating group; a benzimidazole ring, which may act as a purine analogue; and a butyric acid side chain. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, this agent appears to act primarily as an alkylator. Bendamustine metabolites alkylate and crosslink macromolecules, resulting in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis inhibition, and, subsequently, apoptosis. Bendamustine may differ from other alkylators in that it may be more potent in activating p53-dependent stress pathways and inducing apoptosis; it may induce mitotic catastrophe; and it may activate a base excision DNA repair pathway rather than an alkyltransferase DNA repair mechanism. Accordingly, this agent may be more efficacious and less susceptible to drug resistance than other alkylators.
(Other name for: levodopa)
(Other name for: shark cartilage)
(Other name for: probenecid)
Beneo Synergy 1
(Other name for: oligofructose-enriched inulin)
(Other name for: belimumab)
(Other name for: monobenzone)
A low molecular weight agent with antineoplastic activity. Benzoylphenylurea binds to the colchicine binding site on tubulin, thereby blocking tubulin polymerization and disrupting mitotic function. This agent also inhibits DNA polymerase, and has been shown to arrest leukemia cells in the G1-S transition phase of the cell cycle.
An indazole non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-edema properties. Unlike other NSAIDs, benzydamine hydrochloride does not inhibit cyclooxygenases (COX) but stabilizes membranes, resulting in local anesthesia; inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; inhibits the generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils; inhibits leukocyte aggregation and adhesion; and exhibits antimicrobial properties.
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (Platinum) used for the treatment of adult and childhood ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors. (NCI Thesaurus)
The hydrochloride salt of the anthracycline derivative berubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. Berubicin intercalates into DNA and interrupts topoisomerase II activity, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and repair, and RNA and protein synthesis. Unlike other anthracycline derivatives, this agent crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
A naturally-occurring retinol (vitamin A) precursor obtained from certain fruits and vegetables with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. As an anti-oxidant, beta carotene inhibits free-radical damage to DNA. This agent also induces cell differentiation and apoptosis of some tumor cell types, particularly in early stages of tumorigenesis, and enhances immune system activity by stimulating the release of natural killer cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
A polysaccharide isolated from the cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi with immunostimulant and antineoplastic activities. In a solubilized form, beta-glucan binds to a lectin site within complement receptor 3 (CR3) on leukocytes, priming the receptor to trigger cytotoxic degranulation of leukocytes when leukocyte CR3 binds to complement 3 (iC3b)-coated tumors. Thus, the attachment of beta-glucan to CR3 of circulating leukocytes simulates leukocytes to kill iC3b-coated tumor cells in the same way as they kill iC3b-coated yeast.
A powder formulation containing a triple helix beta-glucan, isolated from the cell walls of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes), with potential immunostimulating activity. The beta-glucan in beta-glucan MM-10-001 binds to a lectin site within the complement receptor 3 (CR3 or iC3b receptor) on leukocytes, priming the receptor to trigger cytotoxic degranulation of leukocytes when leukocyte CR3 binds to iC3b-opsonized tumor cells. iC3b is the proteolyticly inactive product of the complement cleavage fragment C3b.
A poorly soluble, ortho-naphthoquinone with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activity. Beta-lapachone (b-lap) is bioactivated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), creating a futile oxidoreduction that generates high levels of superoxide. In turn, the highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) interact with DNA, thereby causing single-strand DNA breaks and calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores. Eventually, the extensive DNA damage causes hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme facilitating DNA repair, accompanied by rapid depletion of NAD+/ATP nucleotide levels. As a result, a caspase-independent and ER-stress induced mu-calpain-mediated cell death occurs in NQO1-overexpressing tumor cells. NQO1, a flavoprotein and two-electron oxidoreductase, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors.
A thiopurine nucleoside derivative with antineoplastic activity. After conversion to the triphosphate, beta-thioguanine deoxyriboside is incorporated into DNA, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication. This agent is cytotoxic against leukemia cell lines and has demonstrated some activity against leukemia cells in vivo. Beta-thioguanine deoxyriboside demonstrates antineoplastic activity against 6-thioguanine-resistant tumor cells.
(Other name for: povidone-iodine)
(Other name for: povidone-iodine solution)
(Other name for: formoterol fumarate/roxithromycin)
A synthetic glucocorticoid with metabolic, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Betamethasone binds to specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently binds to DNA to modify gene expression. The synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins is induced while the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators is inhibited. As a result, there is an overall reduction in chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions.
(Other name for: recombinant interferon beta)
A pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene derivative of betulin (isolated from the bark of Betula alba, the common white birch) with antiinflammatory, anti-HIV and antineoplastic activities. Betulinic acid induces apoptosis
through induction of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen
species, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, resulting in the release of mitochondrial
apogenic factors, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation. Although originally thought to exhibit specific cytotoxicity against melanoma cells, this agent has been found to be cytotoxic against non-melanoma tumor cell types including neuroectodermal.and brain tumor cells.
A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic cytokine. Bevacizumab binds to VEGF and inhibits VEGF receptor binding, thereby preventing the growth and maintenance of tumor blood vessels.
A synthetic retinoic acid agent with potential antineoplastic, chemopreventive, teratogenic and embryotoxic properties. Bexarotene selectively binds to and activates retinoid X receptors (RXRs), thereby inducing changes in gene expression that lead to cell differentiation, decreased cell proliferation, apoptosis of some cancer cell types, and tumor regression.
(Other name for: valdecoxib)
(Other name for: tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab)
A small molecule compound with potential antineoplastic activities. BI 2536 binds to and inhibits Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), resulting in mitotic arrest, disruption of cytokinesis, and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Plk1, a serine/threonine-protein kinase, is a key regulator of multiple processes fundamental to mitosis and cell division.
bi-shRNA-furin/GMCSF-expressing autologous tumor cell vaccine
Autologous tumor cells transfected with a plasmid expressing recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and bifunctional short hairpin RNA (bi-shRNA) against furin, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal vaccination of bi-shRNA-furin/GM-CSF-expressing autologous tumor cell vaccine, expressed GM-CSF protein, a potent stimulator of the immune system, recruits immune effectors to the site of injection and promotes antigen presentation. The furin bifunctional shRNA blocks furin protein production. Decreased levels of furin lead to a reduction in the conversion of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta into TGF beta1 and beta2 protein isoforms. In turn, as part of the negative feedback mechanism, reduced furin protein levels inhibit TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2 gene expression, thereby further decreasing TGF levels. As TGFs are potent immunosuppressive cytokines, reducing their levels may activate the immune system locally and this may eventually cause a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the tumor cells.
(Other name for: clarithromycin)
A pyrimido-pyrimidine with antitumor activity. BIBX 1382 inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) thus specifically reversing the aberrant enzymatic activity from overexpressed and constitutively activated EGFR, and subsequently inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell differentiation.
A synthetic, nonsteroidal antiandrogen. Bicalutamide competitively binds to cytosolic androgen receptors in target tissues, thereby inhibiting the receptor binding of androgens. This agent does not bind to most mutated forms of androgen receptors.
(Other name for: sodium citrate)
(Other name for: carmustine)
bimatoprost ophthalmic solution
A sterile ophthalmic solution containing 0.03% of a synthetic prostaglandin analog bimatoprost with hair-growing and anti-glaucoma activities. Applied once daily to the upper eyelid margin at the base of the eyelashes and, optionally, to the eyebrows, bimatoprost penetrates into the hair follicle and may, through a mechanism that has yet to be fully understood, stimulate the transition of hair follicles from the telogen phase into the anagen phase and may increase the duration of the time follicles spend in anagen. By increasing the numbers of hair follicles in and duration of anagen phase, bimatoprost may help increase eyebrow and eyelash growth and appearance, including their length, thickness and darkness.
An agent binding to the leukotriene B4 receptor, leading to reduced interleukin-2 mediated hypoxia. Biomed 101 does not affect interleukin-2 antitumor activity.
(Other name for: piperine extract (standardized))
(Other name for: oral microencapsulated diindolylmethane)
The dicitrate salt of a synthetic pipecolinate derivative with potential chemosensitizing activity. Biricodar binds directly to the plasma membrane drug-efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) and inhibits their activities, which may result in increased intracellular accumulation and retention of cytotoxic agents.
The hydrochloride salt of an anthracenyl bishydrazone with antineoplastic activity. Bisantrene intercalates with and disrupts the configuration of DNA, resulting in DNA single-strand breaks, DNA-protein crosslinking, and inhibition of DNA replication. This agent is similar to doxorubicin in activity, but unlike doxorubicin, does not exhibit cardiotoxicity.
bismuth Bi213 monoclonal antibody M195
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of murine monoclonal antibody (M195) and bismuth 213 (Bi213). Monoclonal antibody M195 binds to CD33, a surface antigen expressed by myelogenous leukemia cells. Bi213 is an isotope that emits short-ranged high-energy alpha particles. This radioimmunoconjugate selectively delivers alpha particle-mediated cytotoxicity to leukemic cells, thereby limiting the exposure of normal tissues to ionizing radiation.
A bismuth salt of salicylic acid. Little absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, bismuth subsalicylate exerts a local effect on the gastric mucosa, coating it and protecting it from the corrosive effects of acid and pepsin. This agent also has local antimicrobial properties.
The fumarate salt of a synthetic phenoxy-2-propanol-derived cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist with antihypertensive and potential cardioprotective activities. Devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, bisoprolol selectively and competitively binds to and blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the heart, decreasing cardiac contractility and rate, reducing cardiac output, and lowering blood pressure. In addition, this agent may exhibit antihypertensive activity through the inhibition of renin secretion by juxtaglomerular epithelioid (JGE) cells in the kidney, thus inhibiting activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Bisoprolol has been shown to be cardioprotective in animal models.
bispecific antibody 2B1
A monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Specific for both the immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor CD16 and c-erbB-2, bispecific antibody 2B1 may enhance cellular immune responses against c-erbB-2-positive cells, resulting in increased tumor cell lysis.
bispecific antibody 4G7xH22
A bispecific antibody containing a 4G7 hybridoma secreting IgG1 antibody specific for B-lymphocytes and a monoclonal antibody targeting Fc gamma RI-expressing cells.
bispecific antibody MDX-H210
A humanized bivalent antibody directed against both cytotoxic effector cells expressing Fc gamma receptor type I (Fc gammaRI, or CD64) and HER2/neu-overexpressing tumor cells with potential antineoplastic activity. Bispecific antibody MDX-H210 was constructed by chemically linking Fab' fragments of the anti-HER2/neu-specific monoclonal antibody 520C9 and the Fab' fragments of the anti-Fc gammaRI-specific monoclonal antibody H22. This agent selectively binds to both HER2/neu-expressing tumor cells and Fc gammaRI-expressing cytotoxic effector cells, which may trigger antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cell lysis of HER2/neu-expressing tumor cells. While HER2/neu is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial malignancies, expression of Fc gammaRI is primarily found in cytotoxic immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and cytokine-activated polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells.
bispecific antibody MDX447
An antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Specific for both the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor CD64 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), bispecific antibody MDX447 may enhance cellular immune responses against EGFR positive cells, resulting in increased tumor cell lysis.
A synthetic cyclopropylpyrroloindole antineoplastic antibiotic. Bizelesin binds to the minor groove of DNA and induces interstrand cross-linking of DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA synthesis. Bizelesin also enhances p53 and p21 induction and triggers G2/M cell-cycle arrest, resulting in cell senescence without apoptosis.
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the Fv portion of the anti-CD22 antibody RFB4 fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin-A with potential antineoplastic activity. BL22 immunotoxin binds to CD22, an antigen expressed in B-cell malignancies, thereby delivering its toxin directly to tumor cells. The toxin moiety induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also blocks translational elongation via binding to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells.
A triterpene-containing herb isolated from the roots and rhizomes of the plant Cimicifuga racemosa (also known as Actaea racemosa). While the mechanism of action of black cohosh is not completely understood, it appears to act as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In vitro, this preparation has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells.
Black tea is an infusion of dried leaves from plants of the Theaceae family. Due to the alkaloid caffeine, its main effect is stimulation. Black teas also contain other phytochemicals such as flavonoid and flavonoid-related compounds with strong antioxidant effects. They also attenuate atherosclerotic inflammation, reduce thrombosis, promote normal endothelial function, and block expression of cellular adhesion molecules. Black tea may reduce the risk of cancer, heart diseases, infectious diseases, and degenerative diseases.
(Other name for: bleomycin sulfate)
A mixture of the sulfate salts of basic glycopeptide antineoplastic antibiotics isolated from Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin sulfate forms complexes with iron that reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which cause single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA; these reactive oxygen species also induce lipid peroxidation, carbohydrate oxidation, and alterations in prostaglandin synthesis and degradation.
An oral laxative containing sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and sucralose. Oral sulfate-based laxative BLI850 exhibits osmotic activity, attracting water into the intestinal tract from tissues and increasing the volume and the water content of the stool; gastrointestinal motility is stimulated, resulting in defecation. Sucralose, an artificial sweetener, may contribute to the laxative effect.
A recombinant, single-chain, anti-CD19/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Blinatumomab posesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD19, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of B cells. This bispecific monoclonal antibody brings CD19-expressing tumor B-cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) together, which may result in the CTL- and HTL-mediated cell death of CD19-expressing B-lymphocytes.
blue citrus-based herbal capsule
An oral capsule formulation of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with potential analgesic activity. In addition to other herbs, seeds and fruits, blue citrus-based herbal capsule contains the Chinese herb blue citrus (qing pi), which is produced from the dried immature green peel of the tangerine Citrus reticulata Blanco. Blue citrus contains large amounts of limonene, citral and synephrine, which may attribute to its analgesic activity. However, due to the complexity of its chemical components, the exact mechanism of action of this agent remains to be determined.
A nonsedating benzodiazepine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor BMS-214662 inhibits the enzyme farnesyltransferase and the post-translational farnesylation of number of proteins involved in signal transduction, which may result in the inhibition of Ras function and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. This agent may reverse the malignant phenotype of H-Ras-transformed cells and has been shown to be active against tumor cells with and without Ras mutations.
bone metastasis targeting peptide-11
A peptide that mimics naturally occurring interleukin-11 (IL-11) with interleukin receptor binding activity. Upon administration, bone metastasis targeting peptide-11 (BMTP-11) binds to interleukin-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Ra) BMTP-11. This agent might be used to deliver therapeutic agents specifically to IL-11Ra-expressing tumor cells while sparing normal cells. IL-11Ra is a cell surface receptor that may be overexpressed by osteosarcoma cells and by prostate cancer cells in prostate cancer bone metastases.
(Other name for: ibandronate sodium)
(Other name for: nutritional supplement drink)
A boronated phenylalanine complexed with fructose to increase its solubility. When exposed to neutron irradiation, boronophenylalanine absorbs neutrons and self-destructs releasing short-range alpha radiation and 'recoil' lithium in tumor cells, resulting in alpha radiation-induced tumor cell death. This highly selective, localized radiotargeting of tumor cells, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), spares adjacent normal tissues.