Drug Dictionary

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Drug Dictionary

A6

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. A6 is a small piece of a protein called urokinase (an enzyme that dissolves blood clots or prevents them from forming). It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of antimetastatic agent. Also called urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-derived peptide A6.

AAP

An enzyme that is normally found in healthy kidneys. It may be found at high levels in the urine when there are kidney problems. It is used as a biomarker to detect damage to the kidneys caused by drugs and other agents. It may also be used to diagnose certain kidney and liver disorders. Also called alanine aminopeptidase.

abarelix

listen (uh-BAYR-eh-lix) A drug used to reduce the amount of testosterone made in patients with advanced symptomatic prostate cancer for which no other treatment options are available. It belongs to the family of drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Also called Plenaxis.

ABCA1 pathway

listen ( PATH-way) Describes a group of proteins in a cell that work together to help remove extra cholesterol and certain fats from tissue in the body. Changes in the ABCA1 pathway may lead to diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Drugs or substances that affect this pathway are being studied in the prevention and treatment of some diseases.

ABCD rating

listen (… RAY-ting) A staging system for prostate cancer that uses ABCD. A and B refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate. C refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. D refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body. Also called Jewett staging system and Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

abdomen

listen (AB-doh-men) The area of the body that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.

abdominal

listen (ab-DAH-mih-nul) Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.

abdominal ultrasound

listen (ab-DAH-mih-nul UL-truh-sownd) A procedure used to examine the organs in the abdomen. An ultrasound transducer (probe) is pressed firmly against the skin of the abdomen. High-energy sound waves from the transducer bounce off tissues and create echoes. The echoes are sent to a computer, which makes a picture called a sonogram. Also called transabdominal ultrasound.

abdominal x-ray

listen (ab-DAH-mih-nul EX-ray) An x-ray of the organs inside the abdomen. An x-ray is a type of radiation that can pass through the body and onto film, making pictures of areas inside the body. X-rays may be used to help diagnose disease.

abdominoperineal resection

listen (ab-DAH-mih-noh-PAYR-ih-NEE-ul ree-SEK-shun) Surgery to remove the anus, the rectum, and part of the sigmoid colon through an incision made in the abdomen. The end of the intestine is attached to an opening in the surface of the abdomen and body waste is collected in a disposable bag outside of the body. This opening is called a colostomy. Lymph nodes that contain cancer may also be removed during this operation.

Abegrin

listen (A-beh-grin) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Abegrin binds to a protein on the surface of blood vessels and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It may also prevent the spread of cancer. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent, a type of metastasis inhibitor, and a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called etaracizumab, humanized monoclonal antibody MEDI-522, and MEDI-522.

aberrant crypt foci

listen (uh-BAYR-unt kript FOH-sy) Clusters of abnormal tube-like glands in the lining of the colon and rectum. Aberrant crypt foci form before colorectal polyps and are one of the earliest changes that can be seen in the colon that may lead to cancer. Also called ACF.

ABI-007

A drug used to treat breast cancer that has come back or spread to other parts of the body. It is also used with carboplatin to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. ABI-007 is a form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel and may cause fewer side effects than paclitaxel. It stops cancer cells from growing and dividing, and may kill them. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called Abraxane, nanoparticle paclitaxel, paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, and protein-bound paclitaxel.

abiraterone acetate

listen (A-bih-RA-teh-rone A-seh-tayt) A drug used with prednisone to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with other hormone therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Abiraterone acetate lowers the amount of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, made by the body. This may stop the growth of cancer cells that need androgens to grow. Abiraterone acetate is a type of antiandrogen. Also called Zytiga.

ablation

listen (a-BLAY-shun) In medicine, the removal or destruction of a body part or tissue or its function. Ablation may be performed by surgery, hormones, drugs, radiofrequency, heat, or other methods.

abnormal

listen (ab-NOR-mul) Not normal. Describes a state, condition, or behavior that is unusual or different from what is considered normal. An abnormal lesion or growth in or on the body may be benign (not cancer), precancerous or premalignant (likely to become cancer), or malignant (cancer).

ABO blood group system

listen ( blud groop SIS-tem) A system used to group human blood into different types, based on the presence or absence of certain markers on the surface of red blood cells. The four main blood types are A, B, O, and AB. For a blood transfusion, the ABO blood group system is used to match the blood type of the donor and the person receiving the transfusion. People with blood type O can donate blood to anyone and are called universal donors. People with blood type AB can accept blood from all donors and are called universal recipients. People with type A or B can receive matching blood or type O blood.

ABR test

listen (… test) A test used to detect some types of hearing loss, such as hearing loss caused by injury or tumors that affect nerves involved in hearing. Electrodes are placed on the head and certain tones or clicking sounds are made. The electrodes measure nerve signals in the brain when it reacts to the sounds. Also called auditory brain stem response test, BAER test, and brain stem auditory evoked response test.

Abraxane

listen (uh-BRAK-sayn) A drug used to treat breast cancer that has come back or spread to other parts of the body. It is also used with carboplatin to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Abraxane is a form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel and may cause fewer side effects than paclitaxel. It stops cancer cells from growing and dividing, and may kill them. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called ABI-007, nanoparticle paclitaxel, paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, and protein-bound paclitaxel.

abscess

listen (AB-ses) An enclosed collection of pus in tissues, organs, or confined spaces in the body. An abscess is a sign of infection and is usually swollen and inflamed.

absolute neutrophil count

listen (AB-soh-loot NOO-troh-fil kownt) A measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help the body fight infection. An absolute neutrophil count may be used to check for infection, inflammation, leukemia, and other conditions. The lower a person’s absolute neutrophil count is, the higher the risk is of getting an infection. Having an absolute neutrophil count of less than 500 means there is a high risk of getting an infection. Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy, may reduce the absolute neutrophil count. Also called ANC.

absolute risk

listen (AB-soh-loot risk) A measure of the risk of a certain event happening. In cancer research, it is the likelihood that a person who is free of a specific type of cancer at a given age will develop that cancer over a certain period of time. For example, a woman 35 years of age, with no known risk factors for breast cancer, has an absolute risk of getting breast cancer over a lifetime of 90 years of about 13.5%, meaning one out of every seven women will develop breast cancer.

absorption

listen (ub-SORP-shun) The process of taking nutrients from the digestive system into the blood so they can be used in the body.

ABT-263

A substance being studied in the treatment of lymphomas and other types of cancer. It blocks some of the enzymes that keep cancer cells from dying. It is a type of Bcl-2 family inhibitor. Also called navitoclax.

ABT-510

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of angiogenesis inhibitor.

ABT-751

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called sulfonamides.

ABT-869

A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. ABT-869 blocks the action of several growth factors. It may also block the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogensis inhibitor. Also called multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor ABT-869.

ABT-888

A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancers caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. ABT-888 may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Also called PARP-1 inhibitor ABT-888 and veliparib.

ABVD

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vinblastine sulfate, and dacarbazine. Also called ABVD regimen.

ABVD regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vinblastine sulfate, and dacarbazine. Also called ABVD.

ABVE

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide. Also called ABVE regimen, DBVE, and DBVE regimen.

ABVE regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide. Also called ABVE, DBVE, and DBVE regimen.

ABVE-PC

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide. Also called ABVE-PC regimen, DBVE-PC, and DBVE-PC regimen.

ABVE-PC regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide. Also called ABVE-PC, DBVE-PC, and DBVE-PC regimen.

ABX-EGF

A human monoclonal antibody that is being used to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose disease has not gotten better during or after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. ABX-EGF binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and may block tumor cell growth. Also called panitumumab and Vectibix.

AC

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer, including breast cancer that has spread or come back. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide. Also called AC regimen.

AC regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer, including breast cancer that has spread or come back. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide. Also called AC.

ACAPHA

listen (a-KA-fuh) A mixture of six herbs that has been used in China to prevent and treat diseases such as lung and esophageal cancers. It is being studied in the United States and Canada in the prevention of lung cancer in people who used to smoke.

accelerated partial-breast irradiation

listen (ak-SEH-leh-ray-ted PAR-shul-brest ih-RAY-dee-AY-shun) A type of radiation therapy given only to the part of the breast that has cancer in it. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation gives a higher dose over a shorter time than is given in standard whole-breast radiation therapy. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation may be given using internal or external sources of radiation. Also called partial-breast irradiation.

accelerated phase chronic myelogenous leukemia

listen (ak-SEH-leh-ray-ted fayz KRAH-nik MY-eh-LAH-jeh-nus loo-KEE-mee-uh) A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which the disease is progressing. In this phase, 10% to 19% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells).

accelerated radiation therapy

listen (ak-SEH-leh-ray-ted RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee) Radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is given over a shorter period of time (fewer days) compared to standard radiation therapy.

accelerated-fraction radiation therapy

listen (ak-SEH-leh-ray-ted-FRAK-shun RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee) Radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into small doses and the treatments are given more than once a day. The total dose of radiation is also given over a shorter period of time (fewer days) compared to standard radiation therapy.

Accolate

listen (A-koh-layt) A drug used to prevent and treat symptoms of asthma. It blocks substances that cause inflammation in the lungs. It is a type of antiasthmatic agent and a leukotriene receptor antagonist. Also called zafirlukast.

ACE inhibitor

listen (… in-HIH-bih-ter) A drug that is used to lower blood pressure. An ACE inhibitor is a type of antihypertensive agent. Also called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

acetaminophen

listen (uh-see-tuh-MIH-nuh-fen) A drug that reduces pain and fever (but not inflammation). It belongs to the family of drugs called analgesics.

acetate

listen (A-seh-tayt) A form of acetic acid (an acid found in vinegar).

acetic acid

listen (uh-SEE-tik A-sid) An acid found in vinegar. Acetic acid is also used to dissolve substances needed to make some medicines and other products, such as plastics.

acetone

listen (A-seh-tone) A chemical substance found naturally in small amounts in plants, trees, volcanoes, and forest fires. Acetone is also made by the body when fats are broken down. It is also found in tobacco smoke, car exhaust, and trash landfills. In industry, acetone is used in some plastics, fibers, medicines, household cleaners, glues, and nail polish removers. Being exposed to high levels of acetone may irritate the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, loss of consciousness, and other health problems.

acetyl group

listen (A-seh-til groop) A small molecule made of two carbon, three hydrogen, and one oxygen atoms. Acetyl groups are added to or removed from other molecules and may affect how the molecules act in the body.

acetylation

listen (a-SEH-tih-LAY-shun) A chemical reaction in which a small molecule called an acetyl group is added to other molecules. Acetylation of proteins may affect how they act in the body.

acetylcholine

listen (A-seh-til-KOH-leen) A chemical made by some types of nerve cells. It is used to send messages to other cells, including other nerve cells, muscle cells, and gland cells. It is released from the nerve ending and carries signals to cells on the other side of a synapse (space between nerve cells and other cells). Acetylcholine helps control memory and the action of certain muscles. It is a type of neurotransmitter.

acetylcysteine

listen (A-seh-til-SIS-teh-een) A drug usually used to reduce the thickness of mucus and ease its removal. It is also used to reverse the toxicity of high doses of acetaminophen. Also called N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine.

acetyl-L-carnitine

listen (A-seh-til … KAR-nih-teen) A form of the natural substance carnitine that is being studied as a way to prevent tissue damage caused by chemotherapy. Carnitine is made in muscle and liver tissue and is found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products. It is used by many cells in the body to make energy from fat. Also called acetyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride and ALCAR.

acetyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride

listen (A-seh-til … KAR-nih-teen HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A form of the natural substance carnitine that is being studied as a way to prevent tissue damage caused by chemotherapy. Carnitine is made in muscle and liver tissue and is found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products. It is used by many cells in the body to make energy from fat. Also called acetyl-L-carnitine and ALCAR.

ACF

Clusters of abnormal tube-like glands in the lining of the colon and rectum. ACF form before colorectal polyps and are one of the earliest changes that can be seen in the colon that may lead to cancer. Also called aberrant crypt foci.

achlorhydria

listen (ay-klor-HY-dree-uh) A lack of hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid helps digest food.

acid

listen (A-sid) A chemical that gives off hydrogen ions in water and forms salts by combining with certain metals. Acids have a sour taste and turn certain dyes red. Some acids made by the body, such as gastric acid, can help organs work the way they should. An example of an acid is hydrochloric acid. Acidity is measured on a scale called the pH scale. On this scale, a value of 7 is neutral, and a pH value of less than 7 to 0 shows increasing acidity.

acid-base balance

listen (A-sid-bays BA-lunts) In medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid and base in the blood and other body fluids. Keeping a normal acid-base balance is important for the body to work the way it should. Also called acid-base equilibrium.

acid-base equilibrium

listen (A-sid-bays EE-kwuh-LIH-bree-um) In medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid and base in the blood and other body fluids. Keeping a normal acid-base equilibrium is important for the body to work the way it should. Also called acid-base balance.

acidification

listen (a-SIH-dih-fih-KAY-shun) The process of making or becoming an acid. An acid is a substance that gives off hydrogen ions in water and forms salts by combining with certain metals.

acidity

listen (a-SIH-dih-tee) Describes the amount of acid in a substance. An acid is a chemical that gives off hydrogen ions in water and forms salts by combining with certain metals. Acidity is measured on a scale called the pH scale. On this scale, a pH value of 7 is neutral, and a pH value of less than 7 to 0 shows increasing acidity.

acitretin

listen (A-sih-TREH-tin) A substance that is used in the prevention of cancer and in the treatment of psoriasis. It belongs to the family of drugs called retinoids.

ACN53

A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. ACN53 is a weakened adenovirus that carries the p53 gene into tumor cells, causing them to die. It is a type of gene therapy. Also called rAd/p53, recombinant adenovirus-p53, and SCH-58500.

acne

listen (AK-nee) A disorder of the skin in which oil glands and hair glands become inflamed.

acolbifene hydrochloride

listen (ay-KOLE-bih-feen HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A substance being studied in the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk of breast cancer. Acolbifene hydrochloride binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in the breast. It is a type of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM).

acoustic

listen (uh-KOOS-tik) Having to do with sound or hearing.

acoustic neurofibromatosis

listen (uh-KOOS-tik NOOR-oh-fy-broh-muh-TOH-sis) A genetic condition in which tumors form on the nerves of the inner ear and cause loss of hearing and balance. Tumors may also occur in the brain and on nerves in the skull and spinal cord, and may cause loss of speech, eye movement, and the ability to swallow. Also called neurofibromatosis type 2 and NF2.

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

listen (uh-KWY-erd IH-myoo-noh-dih-FIH-shun-see SIN-drome) A disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system. Also called AIDS.

acquired pure red cell aplasia

listen (uh-KWY-erd sel uh-PLAY-zhuh) A rare disorder in which the bone marrow makes almost no red blood cells. It may be caused by infection or by certain drugs. Patients with this disorder may also have a thymoma (a tumor of the thymus) or an autoimmune condition such as lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.

acridine carboxamide

listen (A-krih-deen kar-BOK-suh-mide) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called DACA.

acromegaly

listen (A-kroh-MEH-guh-lee) A condition in which the pituitary gland makes too much growth hormone after normal growth of the skeleton is finished. This causes the bones of the hands, feet, head, and face to grow larger than normal. Acromegaly can be caused by a pituitary gland tumor.

acrylonitrile

listen (ak-rih-loh-NY-tril) A substance used to make plastics, rubber, and textiles. Being exposed to acrylonitrile may increase the risk of developing certain cancers, such as lung, brain, or prostate cancer.

AC-T

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol). Also called AC-T regimen and AC-Taxol regimen.

AC-T regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol). Also called AC-T and AC-Taxol regimen.

AC-Taxol regimen

listen ( TAK-sol REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol). Also called AC-T and AC-T regimen.

ACTH

A hormone made in the pituitary gland. ACTH acts on the outer part of the adrenal gland to control its release of corticosteroid hormones. More ACTH is made during times of stress. Also called adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin.

AC-TH regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Also called AC-T-T, AC-T-T regimen, and sequential AC/Taxol-Trastuzumab regimen.

Actinex

listen (AK-tih-nex) A drug put on the skin to treat growths caused by sun exposure. A form of Actinex that is taken by mouth is being studied in the treatment of prostate cancer. Actinex is an antioxidant, and it may block certain enzymes needed for tumor growth. Also called masoprocol, NDGA, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid.

actinic keratosis

listen (ak-TIH-nik KAYR-uh-TOH-sis) A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin. Also called senile keratosis and solar keratosis.

actinomycin D

listen (AK-tih-noh-MY-sin ) A drug used to treat Ewing sarcoma, gestational trophoblastic tumor, Wilms tumor, and certain types of testicular cancer. It is also used to treat rhabdomyosarcoma in children. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Actinomycin D comes from the bacterium Streptomyces parvulus. It damages the cells DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anticancer antibiotic. Also called Cosmegen and dactinomycin.

action study

listen (AK-shun STUH-dee) In cancer prevention clinical trials, a study that focuses on finding out whether actions people take can prevent cancer.

Activase

listen (AK-tih-vays) A form of tissue plasminogen activator that is made in the laboratory. It helps dissolve blood clots and is used to treat heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the lungs. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of systemic thrombolytic agent. Also called Alteplase, r-tPA, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

activate

listen (AK-tih-vayt) In biology, to stimulate a cell in a resting state to become active. This causes biochemical and functional changes in the activated cell.

active surveillance

listen (AK-tiv ser-VAY-lents) A treatment plan that involves closely watching a patients condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse. Active surveillance may be used to avoid or delay the need for treatments such as radiation therapy or surgery, which can cause side effects or other problems. During active surveillance, certain exams and tests are done on a regular schedule. It may be used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, urethral cancer, and intraocular (eye) melanoma. It is a type of expectant management.

activities of daily living

listen (ak-TIH-vih-teezDAY-lee LIH-ving) The tasks of everyday life. These activities include eating, dressing, getting into or out of a bed or chair, taking a bath or shower, and using the toilet. Instrumental activities of daily living are activities related to independent living and include preparing meals, managing money, shopping, doing housework, and using a telephone. Also called ADL.

Actos

listen (AK-tose) A drug that is used to treat type 2 diabetes and is being studied in the prevention of head and neck cancer. It may be able to stop leukoplakia (a condition affecting the mouth ) from developing into cancer. It is a type of thiazolidinedione. Also called pioglitazone.

AC-T-T

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Also called AC-T-T regimen, AC-TH regimen, and sequential AC/Taxol-Trastuzumab regimen.

AC-T-T regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Also called AC-T-T, AC-TH regimen, and sequential AC/Taxol-Trastuzumab regimen.

acupoint

listen (AK-yoo-poynt) A specific spot on the body where an acupuncture needle may be inserted to control pain and other symptoms. Also called acupuncture point.

acupressure

listen (AK-yoo-PREH-sher) The application of pressure or localized massage to specific sites on the body to control symptoms such as pain or nausea. It is a type of complementary and alternative medicine.

acupuncture

listen (AK-yoo-PUNK-cher) The technique of inserting thin needles through the skin at specific points on the body to control pain and other symptoms. It is a type of complementary and alternative medicine.

acupuncture needle

listen (AK-yoo-PUNK-cher NEE-dul) A stainless steel needle that is slightly thicker than a human hair. Acupuncture needles are inserted through the skin at specific points on the body to control pain and other symptoms.

acupuncture point

listen (AK-yoo-PUNK-cher poynt) A specific spot on the body where an acupuncture needle may be inserted to control pain and other symptoms. Also called acupoint.

acupuncture point injection

listen (AK-yoo-PUNK-cher poynt in-JEK-shun) A procedure in which drugs, vitamins, herbal extracts, or other fluids are injected into the body at an acupuncture point using a syringe and needle.

acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

listen (AK-yoo-PUNK-cher-like tranz-kyoo-TAY-nee-us ee-LEK-trih-kul nerv STIM-yoo-LAY-shun) A procedure in which mild electric currents are applied to certain acupuncture points (spots on the body where an acupuncture needle may be inserted to control pain and other symptoms) on the skin. It is being studied in the treatment of dry mouth caused by radiation therapy for cancer. Also called ALTENS.

acupuncturist

listen (AK-yoo-PUNK-cheh-rist) A person trained in acupuncture (therapy that uses thin needles inserted through the skin at specific points on the body to control pain and other symptoms). Acupuncture is a type of complementary and alternative medicine.

acustimulation

listen (AK-yoo-STIM-yoo-LAY-shun) Mild electrical stimulation of acupuncture points to control symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.

acute

listen (uh-KYOOT) Symptoms or signs that begin and worsen quickly; not chronic.

acute bacterial prostatitis

listen (uh-KYOOT bak-TEER-ee-ul PROS-tuh-TY-tis) Inflammation of the prostate gland that begins suddenly and gets worse quickly. It is caused by a bacterial infection. Symptoms include fever and chills, body aches, pain in the lower back and genital area, a burning feeling during urination, and problems with emptying the bladder all the way.

acute leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT loo-KEE-mee-uh) A rapidly progressing cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of white blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT LIM-foh-BLAS-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh) A type of leukemia (blood cancer) that comes on quickly and is fast growing. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) in the blood and bone marrow. Also called acute lymphocytic leukemia and ALL.

acute lymphocytic leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh) A type of leukemia (blood cancer) that comes on quickly and is fast growing. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, there are too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) in the blood and bone marrow. Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia and ALL.

acute myeloblastic leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT MY-eh-loh-BLAS-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh) An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, AML, and ANLL.

acute myelogenous leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT MY-eh-LAH-jeh-nus loo-KEE-mee-uh) An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, AML, and ANLL.

acute myeloid leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT MY-eh-loyd loo-KEE-mee-uh) An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, AML, and ANLL.

acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT non-LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh) An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, AML, and ANLL.

acute pain

listen (uh-KYOOT payn) Pain that comes on quickly, can be severe, but lasts a relatively short time.

acute promyelocytic leukemia

listen (uh-KYOOT proh-MY-eh-loh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh) An aggressive (fast-growing) type of acute myeloid leukemia in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow. It is usually marked by an exchange of parts of chromosomes 15 and 17. Also called APL and promyelocytic leukemia.

acute radiation sickness

listen (uh-KYOOT RAY-dee-AY-shun SIK-nes) Serious illness caused by being exposed to high doses of certain types of radiation, usually over a short period of time. Symptoms of acute radiation sickness usually occur right after exposure but they may happen over time, and they may come and go. Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, bleeding, hair loss, swelling, itching, and redness of the skin, and other skin problems. Very large doses of radiation may cause death. Also called acute radiation syndrome, radiation poisoning, radiation sickness, and radiation sickness syndrome.

acute radiation syndrome

listen (uh-KYOOT RAY-dee-AY-shun SIN-drome) Serious illness caused by being exposed to high doses of certain types of radiation, usually over a short period of time. Symptoms of acute radiation syndrome usually occur right after exposure but they may happen over time, and they may come and go. Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, bleeding, hair loss, swelling, itching, and redness of the skin, and other skin problems. Very large doses of radiation may cause death. Also called acute radiation sickness, radiation poisoning, radiation sickness, and radiation sickness syndrome.

acyclovir

listen (ay-SY-kloh-veer) A substance used to prevent or treat cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections that may occur when the body is immunosuppressed. It belongs to the family of drugs called antivirals.

AD 32

A drug used to treat bladder cancer that does not respond to BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin). It is an anthracycline and is a type of antitumor antibiotic. Also called valrubicin.

ADC

A substance made up of a monoclonal antibody chemically linked to a drug. The monoclonal antibody binds to specific proteins or receptors found on certain types of cells, including cancer cells. The linked drug enters these cells and kills them without harming other cells. Some ADCs are used to treat cancer. Also called antibody-drug conjugate.

ADCC

A type of immune reaction in which a target cell or microbe is coated with antibodies and killed by certain types of white blood cells. The white blood cells bind to the antibodies and release substances that kill the target cells or microbes. Also called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Adcetris

listen (ad-SEH-tris) A drug used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma in patients who did not get better with other treatment, cannot be treated with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), or have a high risk that the cancer will come back or get worse after ASCT. It is also used to treat systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma that did not get better with other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of lymphoma. Adcetris is made up of a monoclonal antibody linked to an anticancer drug. It binds to a protein called CD30, which is on the surface of some lymphoma cells, and may kill cancer cells. Adcetris is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. Also called brentuximab vedotin and SGN-35.

Adderall

listen (A-deh-rawl) A combination of drugs used as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder). It is a type of stimulant. Also called dextroamphetamine-amphetamine.

addiction

listen (uh-DIK-shun) An uncontrollable craving, seeking, and use of a substance, such as adrug or alcohol.

Addison disease

listen (A-dih-sun dih-ZEEZ) A rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not make enough of certain hormones. Symptoms include weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood sugar, low blood pressure, and patchy or dark skin. Most cases of the disorder are caused by immune system problems, but may also be caused by infection, cancer, or other diseases. Also called adrenal insufficiency.

ADE

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It includes the drugs cytarabine (Ara-C), daunorubicin hydrochloride, and etoposide phosphate. Also called ADE regimen.

ADE regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It includes the drugs cytarabine (Ara-C), daunorubicin hydrochloride, and etoposide phosphate. Also called ADE.

adenine

listen (A-deh-neen) A chemical compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also a part of many substances in the body that give energy to cells. Adenine is a type of purine.

adenocarcinoma

listen (A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh) Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells are found in tissue that lines certain internal organs and makes and releases substances in the body, such as mucus, digestive juices, or other fluids. Most cancers of the breast, pancreas, lung, prostate, and colon are adenocarcinomas.

adenocarcinoma in situ

listen (A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too) A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the glandular tissue that lines certain internal organs, such as the uterus, cervix, lung, pancreas, and colon. Adenocarcinoma in situ, which occurs most often in the cervix, may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. Also called AIS.

adenoid cystic carcinoma

listen (A-deh-noyd SIS-tik KAR-sih-NOH-muh) A rare type of cancer that usually begins in the salivary glands.

adenoma

listen (A-deh-NOH-muh) A tumor that is not cancer. It starts in gland-like cells of the epithelial tissue (thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body).

adenopathy

listen (A-deh-NAH-puh-thee) Large or swollen lymph glands.

adenosarcoma

listen (A-den-oh-sar-KOH-muh) A tumor that is a mixture of an adenoma (a tumor that starts in the gland-like cells of epithelial tissue) and a sarcoma (a tumor that starts in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue). An example of an adenosarcoma is Wilms tumor.

adenosine triphosphate

listen (uh-DEH-nuh-seen try-FOS-fayt) A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA. Adenosine triphosphate made in the laboratory is being studied in patients with advanced solid tumors to see if it can decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength. Also called ATP.

adenosis

listen (A-deh-NOH-sis) A disease or abnormal change in a gland. Breast adenosis is a benign condition in which the lobules are larger than usual.

adenosquamous carcinoma

listen (A-deh-noh-SKWAY-mus KAR-sih-NOH-muh) A type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line certain organs) and gland-like cells.

adenovirus

listen (A-den-oh-VY-rus) A member of a family of viruses that can cause infections in the respiratory tract, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. Forms of adenoviruses that do not cause disease are used in gene therapy. They carry genes that may fix defects in cells or kill cancer cells.

ADH

A benign (not cancer) condition in which there are more cells than normal in the lining of breast ducts and the cells look abnormal under a microscope. Having ADH increases the risk of breast cancer. Also called atypical ductal breast hyperplasia and atypical ductal hyperplasia.

ADI-PEG 20

A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma, liver cancer, and other types of cancer. It breaks down the amino acid arginine and may block the growth of cancer cells that need arginine to grow. It is a type of iminohydrolase. Also called pegylated arginine deiminase.

adjunct agent

listen (A-junkt AY-jent) In cancer therapy, a drug or substance used in addition to the primary therapy.

adjunct therapy

listen (A-junkt THAYR-uh-pee) Another treatment used together with the primary treatment. Its purpose is to assist the primary treatment. Also called adjunctive therapy.

adjunctive therapy

listen (A-junk-tiv THAYR-uh-pee) Another treatment used together with the primary treatment. Its purpose is to assist the primary treatment. Also called adjunct therapy.

adjustment disorder

listen (uh-JUST-ment dis-OR-der) A condition in which a person responds to a stressful event (such as an illness, job loss, or divorce) with extreme emotions and actions that cause problems at work and home.

adjuvant therapy

listen (A-joo-vunt THAYR-uh-pee) Additional cancer treatment given after the primary treatment to lower the risk that the cancer will come back. Adjuvant therapy may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, or biological therapy.

ADL

Activities of daily living. The tasks of everyday life. Basic ADLs include eating, dressing, getting into or out of a bed or chair, taking a bath or shower, and using the toilet. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are activities related to independent living and include preparing meals, managing money, shopping, doing housework, and using a telephone. Also called activities of daily living.

administration

listen (ad-MIH-nih-STRAY-shun) In medicine, the act of giving a treatment, such as a drug, to a patient. It can also refer to the way it is given, the dose, or how often it is given.

adnexal mass

listen (ad-NEK-sul) A lump in tissue near the uterus, usually in the ovary or fallopian tube. Adnexal masses include ovarian cysts, ectopic (tubal) pregnancies, and benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer) tumors.

adolescent

listen (A-doh-LEH-sent) A young person who has begun puberty but has not yet become an adult. During adolescence a child experiences physical and hormonal changes that mark the transition into adulthood. Adolescents are generally between the ages of 10 and 19 years.

adoptive cellular therapy

listen (uh-DOP-tiv SEL-yoo-ler THAYR-uh-pee) A treatment used to help the immune system fight diseases, such as cancer and infections with certain viruses. T cells are collected from a patient and grown in the laboratory. This increases the number of T cells that are able to kill cancer cells or fight infections. These T cells are given back to the patient to help the immune system fight disease. Also called cellular adoptive immunotherapy.

ado-trastuzumab emtansine

listen (A-doh-tras-TOO-zoo-mab em-TAN-seen) A drug used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients who have already been treated with the anticancer drug called trastuzumab and a type of drug called a taxane. It may also be used in patients whose cancer has recurred (come back) after adjuvant therapy with these drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ado-trastuzumab emtansine contains a monoclonal antibody called trastuzumab that binds to a protein called HER2, which is found on some breast cancer cells. It also contains an anticancer drug called DM1, which may help kill cancer cells. Ado-trastuzumab emtansine is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. Also called Kadcyla and T-DM1.

adrenal cancer

listen (uh-DREE-nul KAN-ser) Cancer that forms in the tissues of the adrenal glands (two glands located just above the kidneys). The adrenal glands make hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. Adrenal cancer that starts in the outside layer of the adrenal gland is called adrenocortical carcinoma. Adrenal cancer that starts in the center of the adrenal gland is called malignant pheochromocytoma.

adrenal cortex

listen (uh-DREE-nul KOR-tex) The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones.

adrenal gland

listen (uh-DREE-nul…) A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These hormones help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. Also called suprarenal gland.

adrenal insufficiency

listen (uh-DREE-nul IN-suh-FIH-shen-see) A rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not make enough of certain hormones. Symptoms include weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood sugar, low blood pressure, and patchy or dark skin. Most cases of the disorder are caused by immune system problems, but may also be caused by infection, cancer, or other diseases. Also called Addison disease.

adrenal medulla

listen (uh-DREE-nul meh-DOO-luh) The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in sending nerve signals.

adrenalectomy

listen (uh-DREE-nul-EK-toh-mee) Surgery to remove one or both adrenal glands (a small organ on top of each kidney).

adrenaline

listen (uh-DREH-nuh-lin) A hormone and neurotransmitter. Also called epinephrine.

adrenocortical

listen (uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul) Having to do with or made by the outer layer of the adrenal gland, which produces steroid hormones. There is an adrenal gland on top of each kidney.

adrenocortical cancer

listen (uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul KAN-ser) A rare cancer that forms in the outer layer of tissue of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline to control heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions). Also called adrenocortical carcinoma and cancer of the adrenal cortex.

adrenocortical carcinoma

listen (uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul KAR-sih-NOH-muh) A rare cancer that forms in the outer layer of tissue of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline to control heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions). Also called adrenocortical cancer and cancer of the adrenal cortex.

adrenocorticotropic hormone

listen (uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-koh-TROH-pik HOR-mone) A hormone made in the pituitary gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone acts on the outer part of the adrenal gland to control its release of corticosteroid hormones. More adrenocorticotropic hormone is made during times of stress. Also called ACTH and corticotropin.

AdreView

listen (A-dreh-VYOO) A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. AdreView is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called 123I-MIBG, iobenguane I 123, and iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

Adriamycin PFS

listen (AY-dree-uh-MY-sin ) A brand name for doxorubicin hydrochloride, which is used to treat many types of cancer. Adriamycin PFS brand has been taken off the market and is no longer available.

Adriamycin RDF

listen (AY-dree-uh-MY-sin ) A brand name for doxorubicin hydrochloride, which is used to treat many types of cancer. Adriamycin RDF brand has been taken off the market and is no longer available.

adult progeria

listen (uh-DULT proh-JEER-ee-uh) An inherited disorder marked by rapid aging that begins in early adolescence. Patients may be shorter than average, and have health problems such as loss and graying of hair, hardening of the arteries, thinning of the bones, diabetes, and thin, hardened skin. They also have an increased risk of cancer, especially osteosarcoma (a type of bone cancer). Adult progeria is caused by a mutation (change) in a gene involved in cell division. It is a type of autosomal recessive gene disease. Also called Werner syndrome and WS.

adult rickets

listen (uh-DULT RIH-kets) A condition in adults in which bones become soft and deformed because they dont have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is usually caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet, not getting enough sunlight, or a problem with the way the body uses vitamin D. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. When the condition occurs in children, it is called rickets. Also called osteomalacia.

adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

listen (uh-DULT T-sel loo-KEE-mee-uh/lim-FOH-muh) An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is marked by bone and skin lesions, high calcium levels, and enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Also called ATLL.

adulterant

listen (uh-DUL-teh-runt) A substance added to a product but not listed as an ingredient, or a substance that ends up in a product by accident when the product is made. Adulterants may be in foods, drugs, and other products. An adulterant may cause a product to be harmful, cheaper to make, or not work as it should.

advance directive

listen (ad-VANS duh-REK-tiv) A legal document that states the treatment or care a person wishes to receive or not receive if he or she becomes unable to make medical decisions (for example, due to being unconscious or in a coma). Some types of advance directives are living wills and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders.

advanced cancer

listen (ad-VANST KAN-ser) Cancer that has spread to other places in the body and usually cannot be cured or controlled with treatment.

advanced practice nurse

listen (ad-VANST PRAK-tis …) A registered nurse who has additional education and training in how to diagnose and treat disease. Advanced practice nurses are licensed at the state level and certified by national nursing organizations. In cancer care, an advanced practice nurse may manage the primary care of patients and their families, based on a practice agreement with a doctor. Also called APN, NP, and nurse practitioner.

adverse effect

listen (AD-vers eh-FEKT) An unexpected medical problem that happens during treatment with a drug or other therapy. Adverse effects do not have to be caused by the drug or therapy, and they may be mild, moderate, or severe. Also called adverse event.

adverse event

listen (AD-vers eh-VENT) An unexpected medical problem that happens during treatment with a drug or other therapy. Adverse events do not have to be caused by the drug or therapy, and they may be mild, moderate, or severe. Also called adverse effect.

Advil

listen (AD-vil) A drug used to treat fever, swelling, pain, and redness by preventing the body from making a substance that causes inflammation. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Also called ibuprofen and Motrin.

AE-941

A substance made from shark cartilage that is being studied for its ability to prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent.

AEE788

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors.

AEG35156

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. AEG35156 may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of a protein called XIAP that helps cells live longer. It also makes cancer cells more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide, and a type of chemosensitizing agent. Also called GEM640.

aerobic

listen (ayr-OH-bik) In biochemistry, reactions that need oxygen to happen or happen when oxygen is present.

aerobic exercise

listen (ayr-OH-bik EK-ser-size) Physical activity that increases the heart rate and the bodys use of oxygen. It helps improve a persons physical fitness.

aerobic metabolism

listen (ayr-OH-bik meh-TA-buh-lih-zum) A chemical process in which oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates (sugars). Also called aerobic respiration, cell respiration, and oxidative metabolism.

aerobic respiration

listen (ayr-OH-bik RES-pih-RAY-shun) A chemical process in which oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates (sugars). Also called aerobic metabolism, cell respiration, and oxidative metabolism.

aerodigestive tract

listen (ayr-OH-dy-JES-tiv trakt) The combined organs and tissues of the respiratory tract and the upper part of the digestive tract (including the lips, mouth, tongue, nose, throat, vocal cords, and part of the esophagus and windpipe).

aerosolize

listen (AYR-oh-sah-lize) In medicine, to turn a liquid drug into a fine mist that can be inhaled.

afatinib dimaleate

listen (ay-FA-tih-nib dy-MAY-lee-AYT) A drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients with certain mutations (changes) in a cell protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Afatinib dimaleate blocks certain EGFRs, which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Afatinib dimaleate is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Gilotrif.

affinity

listen (uh-FIH-nih-tee) In chemistry and biology, the strength of the attaction between two substances, such as two chemicals, or an antigen and an antibody.

affinity reagent

listen (uh-FIH-nih-tee ree-AY-jent) In chemistry and biology, a compound that binds specific substances, such as proteins or nucleic acids. Many affinity reagents are antibodies. They are used to analyze tissue samples to help diagnose diseases.

Afinitor

listen (uh-FIH-nih-tor) A drug used with exemestane to treat some postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that is hormone-receptor positive and HER2 negative. It is also used to treat certain types of pancreatic, lung, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors that cannot be removed by surgery, are advanced, or have spread to other parts of the body. It is also used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (a type of kidney cancer) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in some patients, including children. Afinitor is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It also lowers the bodys immune response. Afinitor is a type of kinase inhibitor, a type of angiogenesis inhibitor, and a type of immunosuppressant. Also called Afinitor Disperz, everolimus, and RAD001.

Afinitor Disperz

listen (uh-FIH-nih-tor DIS-perz) A drug used with exemestane to treat some postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that is hormone-receptor positive and HER2 negative. It is also used to treat certain types of pancreatic, lung, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors that cannot be removed by surgery, are advanced, or have spread to other parts of the body. It is also used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (a type of kidney cancer) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in some patients, including children. Afinitor Disperz is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It also lowers the bodys immune response. Afinitor Disperz is a type of kinase inhibitor, a type of angiogenesis inhibitor, and a type of immunosuppressant. Also called Afinitor, everolimus, and RAD001.

aflatoxin

listen (A-fluh-TOK-sin) A harmful substance made by certain types of mold (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) that is often found on poorly stored grains and nuts. Consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxin is a risk factor for primary liver cancer.

AFP

A protein normally produced by a fetus. AFP levels are usually undetectable in the blood of healthy adult men or women (who are not pregnant). An elevated level of AFP suggests the presence of either a primary liver cancer or germ cell tumor. Also called alpha-fetoprotein.

AFP464

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. AFP464 kills cancer cells or stops them from dividing. It is a type of aminoflavone.

AG-013736

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

AG014699

A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancers caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. AG014699 may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Also called PARP-1 inhibitor AG014699.

AG2037

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase inhibitors.

AG3340

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. Also called prinomastat.

AG337

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of liver cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called thymidylate synthase inhibitors. Also called nolatrexed and Thymitaq.

aganglionic megacolon

listen (ay-GANG-glee-AH-nik MEH-guh-KOH-lun) A condition in which certain nerve cells are missing from the muscle layers of part of the large intestine. This causes severe constipation or blockage of the large intestine. Constipation is when stool becomes hard, dry, and difficult to pass and bowel movements occur less often than normal. Other symptoms include swollen abdomen, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, gas, lack of energy, and trouble gaining weight. Aganglionic megacolon is present from birth, but the symptoms may not appear until later in a childs life. This condition has been linked to an increased risk of thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma. Also called Hirschsprung disease.

AGC

A finding of abnormal cells in a Pap test. The glandular cells come from the inner part of the cervix or the lining of the uterus. This finding may be a sign of cancer or other serious condition, and more testing may be needed. Also called atypical glandular cells.

agent study

listen (AY-jent STUH-dee) In cancer prevention, a clinical trial that studies whether taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements can prevent cancer. Also called chemoprevention study.

age-related macular degeneration

listen (ayj-ree-LAY-ted MA-kyoo-ler dee-JEH-neh-RAY-shun) A condition in which there is a slow breakdown of cells in the center of the retina (the light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). This blocks vision in the center of the eye and can cause problems with activities such as reading and driving. Age-related macular degeneration is most often seen in people who are over the age of 50. Also called AMD, ARMD, and macular degeneration.

agglutinin

listen (uh-GLOO-tih-nin) A substance that makes particles (such as bacteria or cells) stick together to form a clump or a mass.

aggravating factor

listen (A-gruh-VAY-ting FAK-ter) Something that makes a condition worse. For example, tobacco smoke is an aggravating factor for asthma.

aggressive

listen (uh-GREH-siv) In medicine, describes a tumor or disease that forms, grows, or spreads quickly. It may also describe treatment that is more severe or intense than usual.

aggressive lymphoma

listen (uh-GREH-siv lim-FOH-muh) A type of lymphoma that grows and spreads quickly and has severe symptoms. Also called high-grade lymphoma and intermediate-grade lymphoma.

agitation

listen (A-jih-TAY-shun) A condition in which a person is unable to relax and be still. The person may be very tense and irritable, and become easily annoyed by small things. He or she may be eager to have an argument, and be unwilling to work with caregivers to make the situation better.

agnogenic myeloid metaplasia

listen (ag-noh-JEH-nik MY-eh-loyd meh-tuh-PLAY-zhuh) A progressive, chronic disease in which the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue and blood is made in organs such as the liver and the spleen, instead of in the bone marrow. This disease is marked by an enlarged spleen and progressive anemia. Also called chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, idiopathic myelofibrosis, myelosclerosis with myeloid metaplasia, and primary myelofibrosis.

agonist

listen (A-guh-nist) A drug or substance that binds to a receptor inside a cell or on its surface and causes the same action as the substance that normally binds to the receptor.

agoraphobia

listen (A-gor-uh-FOH-bee-uh) An intense fear of being in open places or in situations where it may be hard to escape, or where help may not be available. People with agoraphobia are usually very anxious about having a panic attack in a public place. They may also have a fear of being alone or have trouble leaving their home. They usually avoid elevators, bridges, and public places. Agoraphobia is a type of phobia and a type of anxiety disorder.

agranulocyte

listen (ay-GRAN-yoo-loh-SITE) A type of white blood cell. Monocytes and lymphocytes are agranulocytes.

AGUS

A term that has been used to describe abnormal cells that come from glands in the walls of the cervix (the lower, narrow end of the uterus). These abnormal cells are found in a small number of Pap smears (a procedure used to detect cervical cancer) and may be a sign of more serious lesions or cancer. The term used now is atypical glandular cells. Also called atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance.

AHA

One of a group of substances that are found in several types of fruit and in milk. They are used in skin care products to reduce wrinkles and soften the skin. Examples of AHAs are glycolic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid. Also called alpha hydroxyl acid and fruit acid.

Aicardi syndrome

listen (ay-KAR-dee SIN-drome) A rare, genetic disorder marked by a lack of tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain, seizures, lesions on the back of the eye (retina), and other brain and eye abnormalities. Other problems may include unusual facial features, defects of the hands, spine, and ribs, and developmental and gastrointestinal problems. When Aicardi syndrome occurs, it is almost always in a newborn girl. People with Aicardi syndrome have an increased risk of certain tumors, such as hepatoblastoma (a type of liver cancer) and choroid plexus tumors (a rare tumor that forms in the brain).

AIDS

listen A disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with AIDS are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system. Also called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

AIDS-related cancer

listen ( ree-LAY-ted KAN-ser) Types of cancer that are more likely to occur in people who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common AIDS-related cancers are Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. People infected with HIV who develop any one of these cancers are considered to have AIDS. Other less common types of AIDS-related cancers include cancers of the mouth, throat, liver, lung, colon, rectum, anus, testes, and skin.

AIS

A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the glandular tissue that lines certain internal organs, such as the uterus, cervix, lung, pancreas, and colon. AIS, which occurs most often in the cervix, may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. Also called adenocarcinoma in situ.

AJCC staging system

listen (… STAY-jing SIS-tem) A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patients body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body). This system was created and is updated by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). The AJCC staging system is used to describe most types of cancer. Also called TNM staging system.

Akt

A group of enzymes involved in several processes related to cell growth and survival. Akt enzymes help to transfer signals inside cells. An Akt enzyme is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase. Also called protein kinase B.

Akynzeo

listen (ay-KIN-zee-oh) A combination of two drugs used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It is a combination of netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride. Akynzeo blocks the action of chemicals in the brain that may trigger nausea and vomiting. Akynzeo is a type of antiemetic. Also called netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride.

Alagille syndrome

listen (a-luh-JEEL SIN-drome) A rare disorder in which there are defects in the small tubes that carry bile (fluid that helps digest fat) out of the liver. These small tubes may be narrow or have an abnormal shape, or there may be fewer of them than normal. This can cause bile to build up in the liver, which may lead to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver damage. Alagille syndrome can also affect other parts of the body, including the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, eyes, face, and spine. It usually occurs in infants and children and may be inherited.

alanine aminopeptidase

listen (A-luh-neen uh-MEE-noh-PEP-tih-days) An enzyme that is normally found in healthy kidneys. It may be found at high levels in the urine when there are kidney problems. It is used as a biomarker to detect damage to the kidneys caused by drugs and other agents. It may also be used to diagnose certain kidney and liver disorders. Also called AAP.

alanine transferase

listen (A-luh-neen TRANZ-feh-rays) An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of alanine transferase released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and SGPT.

alanosine

listen (uh-LAN-oh-seen) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called SDX-102.

albinism

listen (AL-bih-NIH-zum) A group of genetic conditions marked by little or none of the pigment melanin in the skin, hair, and/or eyes. People with albinism may have vision problems and white or yellow hair; reddish, violet, blue or brown eyes; and pale skin.

albumin

listen (al-BYOO-min) A type of protein found in blood, egg white, milk, and other substances.

ALCAR

listen (ALL-kar) A form of the natural substance carnitine that is being studied as a way to prevent tissue damage caused by chemotherapy. Carnitine is made in muscle and liver tissue and is found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products. It is used by many cells in the body to make energy from fat. Also called acetyl-L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride.

ALCL

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is usually of the T-cell type. The cancer cells express a marker called CD30 or Ki-1 on the surface, and may appear in the lymph nodes, skin, bones, soft tissues, lungs, or liver. Also called anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

alcohol

listen (AL-kuh-hol) A chemical substance found in drinks such as beer, wine, and liquor. It is also found in some medicines, mouthwashes, household products, and essential oils (scented liquid taken from certain plants). It is made by a chemical process called fermentation that uses sugars and yeast. There are different types of alcohol. The type used to make alcoholic drinks is called ethyl alcohol (ethanol). Drinking regular or large amounts of alcohol may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, breast, liver, colon, and rectum.

alcohol ablation

listen (AL-kuh-hol a-BLAY-shun) An injection of ethanol (alcohol) through the skin directly into a tumor to kill cancer cells. Ultrasound or a CT scan is used to guide the needle into the tumor. Also called ethanol ablation, PEI, and percutaneous ethanol injection.

alcohol dependence

listen (AL-kuh-hol dee-PEN-dents) A chronic disease in which a person craves drinks that contain alcohol and is unable to control his or her drinking. A person with this disease also needs to drink greater amounts to get the same effect and has withdrawal symptoms after stopping alcohol use. Alcohol dependence affects physical and mental health, and can cause problems with family, friends, and work. Regular heavy alcohol intake increases the risk of several types of cancer. Also called alcoholism.

alcoholism

listen (AL-kuh-HAW-LIH-zum) A chronic disease in which a person craves drinks that contain alcohol and is unable to control his or her drinking. A person with this disease also needs to drink greater amounts to get the same effect and has withdrawal symptoms after stopping alcohol use. Alcoholism affects physical and mental health, and can cause problems with family, friends, and work. Regular heavy alcohol intake increases the risk of several types of cancer. Also called alcohol dependence.

Aldara

listen (al-DAR-uh) A drug used to treat early basal cell skin cancer and certain other skin conditions. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Aldara is a type of biological response modifier. Also called imiquimod.

aldehyde

listen (AL-deh-hide) A type of chemical substance made from alcohol. Aldehydes are found in essential oils (scented liquid taken from plants).

aldesleukin

listen (AL-des-LOO-kin) A drug used to treat some types of cancer. It is a form of interleukin-2, a cytokine made by leukocytes (white blood cells), that is made in the laboratory. Aldesleukin increases the activity and growth of white blood cells called T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. It is a type of biological response modifier. Also called Proleukin and recombinant human interleukin-2.

aldosterone

listen (al-DOS-teh-rone) A steroid hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps control the balance of water and salts in the kidney by keeping sodium in and releasing potassium from the body. Too much aldosterone can cause high blood pressure and a build-up of fluid in body tissues. Aldosterone is a type of mineralocorticoid hormone.

Aldrich syndrome

listen (ALL-drich SIN-drome) An inherited immune disorder that occurs in young boys. It causes eczema (a type of skin inflammation), a decrease in the number of platelets (blood cells that help prevent bleeding), and frequent bacterial infections. People with Aldrich syndrome are at increased risk of developing leukemia and lymphoma. Also called Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

Alecensa

listen (A-leh-SEN-suh) A drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has a mutated (changed) form of a gene called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). It is used in patients whose cancer has gotten worse after treatment with or who cannot receive crizotinib (a type of anticancer drug). Alecensa blocks the protein made by the mutated ALK gene. Blocking this protein may stop the growth and spread of cancer cells. Alecensa is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called alectinib.

alectinib

listen (uh-LEK-tih-nib) A drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has a mutated (changed) form of a gene called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). It is used in patients whose cancer has gotten worse after treatment with or who cannot receive crizotinib (a type of anticancer drug). Alectinib blocks the protein made by the mutated ALK gene. Blocking this protein may stop the growth and spread of cancer cells. Alectinib is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Alecensa.

alefacept

listen (uh-LEH-fuh-sept) A drug that is used to treat certain skin conditions and is being studied in the treatment of cutaneous (skin-related) T-cell cancer and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Alefacept is made by combining part of an antibody with a protein that blocks the growth some types of T cells. It is a type of fusion protein and a type of immunosuppressant. Also called Amevive.

alemtuzumab

listen (A-lem-TOO-zoo-mab) A drug used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Alemtuzumab binds to a protein called CD52, which is found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells. This may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Alemtuzumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Campath.

alendronate sodium

listen (uh-LEN-droh-nayt SOH-dee-um) A drug used to treat certain bone conditions, such as osteoporosis and Paget disease of the bone. It is also being studied in the treatment of hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood) and bone pain caused by cancer. Alendronate sodium slows the breakdown of bone and prevents the loss of calcium. It is a type of bisphosphonate. Also called Fosamax.

ALH

A benign (not cancer) condition in which there are more cells than normal in the breast lobules and the cells look abnormal under a microscope. Having ALH increases the risk of breast cancer. Also called atypical lobular breast hyperplasia and atypical lobular hyperplasia.

Alimta

listen (uh-LIM-tuh) A drug used alone or with another drug to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Alimta blocks DNA synthesis and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of folate antagonist. Also called LY231514 and pemetrexed disodium.

ALK gene

listen ( jeen) A gene that makes a protein called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which may be involved in cell growth. Mutated (changed) forms of the ALK gene and protein have been found in some types of cancer, including neuroblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. These changes may increase the growth of cancer cells. Checking for changes in the ALK gene in tumor tissue may help to plan cancer treatment. Also called anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

alkali

listen (AL-kuh-ly) A chemical that can dissolve in water, combine with acids to form salts, and make acids less acidic. Alkalis have a bitter taste and turn certain dyes blue. Some alkalis can help the body work the way it should. An example of an alkali is sodium hydroxide.

alkalinity

listen (AL-kuh-lih-nih-tee) Refers to the amount of alkali. An alkali is a chemical that can dissolve in water, combine with acids to form salts, and make acids less acidic.

alkalinization

listen (AL-kuh-LIH-nih-ZAY-shun) A process that lowers the amount of acid in a solution. In medicine, an alkali, such as sodium bicarbonate, may be given to patients to lower high levels of acid in the blood or urine that can be caused by certain medicines or conditions.

alkaloid

listen (AL-kuh-loyd) A member of a large group of substances found in plants and in some fungi. Alkaloids contain nitrogen and can be made in the laboratory. Nicotine, caffeine, codeine, and vincristine are alkaloids. Some alkaloids, such as vincristine, are used to treat cancer.

Alkeran for Injection

listen (al-KEH-run … in-JEK-shun) A drug used to treat multiple myeloma in patients who cannot take melphalan by mouth. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Alkeran for Injection may kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called Evomela and melphalan hydrochloride.

Alkeran Tablets

listen (al-KEH-run TA-blets) A drug used to treat multiple myeloma. It is also used to treat ovarian epithelial cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Alkeran Tablets may kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called melphalan.

alkylating agent

listen (AL-kuh-LAY-ting AY-jent) A type of drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. It interferes with the cell’s DNA and inhibits cancer cell growth.

ALL

A type of leukemia (blood cancer) that comes on quickly and is fast growing. In ALL, there are too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) in the blood and bone marrow. Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia.

Allegra

listen (uh-LEH-gruh) A drug used to treat certain allergy symptoms. It blocks a chemical released during an allergic response that causes itching, sneezing, runny nose, wheezing, and watery eyes. It is a type of antihistamine. Also called fexofenadine.

allergen

listen (A-ler-jen) A substance that causes an allergic response. Examples include pollen, molds, and certain foods.

allergic response

listen (uh-LER-jik reh-SPONTS) A hypersensitive immune reaction to a substance that normally is harmless or would not cause an immune response in most people. An allergic response may cause harmful symptoms such as itching or inflammation or tissue injury.

allogeneic

listen (A-loh-jeh-NAY-ik) Taken from different individuals of the same species. Also called allogenic.

allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

listen (A-loh-jeh-NAY-ik bone MAYR-oh tranz-plan-TAY-shun) A procedure in which a person receives stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) from a genetically similar, but not identical, donor.

allogeneic stem cell transplantation

listen (A-loh-jeh-NAY-ik stem sel tranz-plan-TAY-shun) A procedure in which a person receives blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) from a genetically similar, but not identical, donor. This is often a sister or brother, but could be an unrelated donor.

allogenic

listen (A-loh-JEH-nik) Taken from different individuals of the same species. Also called allogeneic.

allograft

listen (A-loh-graft) The transplant of an organ, tissue, or cells from one individual to another individual of the same species who is not an identical twin.

allopathic medicine

listen (A-loh-PA-thik MEH-dih-sin) A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery. Also called biomedicine, conventional medicine, mainstream medicine, orthodox medicine, and Western medicine.

allopurinol

listen (a-loh-PYOOR-rih-nol) A drug that lowers high levels of uric acid (a byproduct of metabolism) in the blood caused by some cancer treatments.

Allovectin-7

listen (A-loh-VEK-tin …) A substance that is being studied as a gene therapy agent in the treatment of cancer. It increases the ability of the immune system to recognize cancer cells and kill them.

all-trans retinoic acid

listen (all-tranz REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid) A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. All-trans retinoic acid is made in the body from vitamin A and helps cells to grow and develop, especially in the embryo. A form of all-trans retinoic acid made in the laboratory is put on the skin to treat conditions such as acne and is taken by mouth to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (a fast-growing cancer in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow). All-trans retinoic acid is being studied in the prevention and treatment of other types of cancer. Also called ATRA, retinoic acid, tretinoin, and vitamin A acid.

aloe-emodin

listen (A-loh-EH-muh-din) A substance found in certain plants, including aloe vera. It belongs to a family of compounds called anthraquinones, which have shown anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects.

alopecia

listen (A-loh-PEE-shuh) The lack or loss of hair from areas of the body where hair is usually found. Alopecia can be a side effect of some cancer treatments.

Aloxi

listen (uh-LOK-see) A drug used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It is also used to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery. Aloxi blocks the action of the chemical serotonin in the brain, which may help lessen nausea and vomiting. It is a type of serotonin receptor antagonist and a type of antiemetic. Also called palonosetron hydrochloride.

alpha emitter radiation therapy

listen (AL-fuh ee-MIH-ter RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee) Therapy that uses a radioactive substance that gives off a type of high-energy radiation called an alpha-particle to kill cancer cells. The radioactive substance is injected into a vein, travels through the blood, and collects in certain tissues in the body, such as areas of bone with cancer. This type of radiation may cause less damage to nearby healthy tissue. Alpha emitter radiation therapy is used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bone, and it is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

alpha hydroxyl acid

listen (AL-fuh hy-DROK-sil A-sid) One of a group of substances that are found in several types of fruit and in milk. They are used in skin care products to reduce wrinkles and soften the skin. Examples of alpha hydroxyl acids are glycolic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid. Also called AHA and fruit acid.

alpha-adrenergic antagonist

listen (AL-fuh-A-dreh-NER-jik an-TA-guh-nist) A substance that relaxes muscle tissue in blood vessels and in the prostate gland, which improves the flow of urine and blood. Alpha-adrenergic antagonists are used to treat the symptoms of many conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high blood pressure, and some blood circulation problems. Also called alpha-blocker.

alpha-blocker

listen (AL-fuh-BLAH-ker) A substance that relaxes muscle tissue in blood vessels and in the prostate gland, which improves the flow of urine and blood. Alpha-blockers are used to treat the symptoms of many conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high blood pressure, and some blood circulation problems. Also called alpha-adrenergic antagonist.

alpha-fetoprotein

listen (AL-fuh-FEE-toh-PROH-teen) A protein normally produced by a fetus. Alpha-fetoprotein levels are usually undetectable in the blood of healthy adult men or women (who are not pregnant). An elevated level of alpha-fetoprotein suggests the presence of either a primary liver cancer or germ cell tumor. Also called AFP.

alpha-lipoic acid

listen (AL-fuh-lih-POH-ik A-sid) A substance that is being studied for its ability to protect normal cells from the side effects of chemotherapy and prevent peripheral neuropathy (numbness, tingling, burning, and weakness in the hands or feet). Alpha-lipoic acid is made by the body and can be found in foods such as organ meats, spinach, broccoli, peas, brussel sprouts, and rice bran. It can also be made in the laboratory. Alpha-lipoic acid is a type of antioxidant and chemoprotective agent.

alpha-tocopherol

listen (AL-fuh-toh-KAH-feh-rol) A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to stay healthy and work the way it should. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in seeds, nuts, leafy green vegetables, and vegetable oils. Alpha-tocopherol boosts the immune system and helps keep blood clots from forming. It also helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Alpha-tocopherol is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of antioxidant. Also called vitamin E.

alprazolam

listen (al-PRAY-zoh-lam) A drug used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks. It is being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of benzodiazepine. Also called Xanax.

alprostadil

listen (al-PROS-tuh-dil) A drug that is used to treat impotence (inability to have an erection) and is being studied in the treatment of sexual problems in men who have had surgery for prostate cancer. It is a type of vasodilator. Also called PGE1 and prostaglandin E1.

ALTENS

listen A procedure in which mild electric currents are applied to certain acupuncture points (spots on the body where an acupuncture needle may be inserted to control pain and other symptoms) on the skin. It is being studied in the treatment of dry mouth caused by radiation therapy for cancer. Also called acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

Alteplase

listen (AL-teh-plays) A form of tissue plasminogen activator that is made in the laboratory. It helps dissolve blood clots and is used to treat heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the lungs. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of systemic thrombolytic agent. Also called Activase, r-tPA, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

alteration

listen (all-teh-RAY-shun) A change resulting in something that is different from the original.

alternative medicine

listen (all-TER-nuh-tiv MEH-dih-sin) Treatments that are used instead of standard treatments. Standard treatments are based on the results of scientific research and are currently accepted and widely used. Less research has been done for most types of alternative medicine. Alternative medicine may include special diets, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, and magnet therapy. For example, a special diet may be used instead of anticancer drugs as a treatment for cancer.

altretamine

listen (al-TREH-tuh-meen) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

alum

listen (A-lum) A chemical substance that contains aluminum sulfate and a second chemical, usually potassium sulfate. It is used to shrink tissues, to stop bleeding, and to boost the immune response to a vaccine.

aluminum

listen (uh-LOO-mih-num) A metallic element that is found combined with other elements in the earths crust. It is also found in small amounts in soil, water, and many foods. It is used in medicine and dentistry and in many products such as foil, cans, pots and pans, airplanes, siding, and roofs. High levels of aluminum in the body can be harmful.

ALVAC-CEA vaccine

listen ( vak-SEEN) A cancer vaccine made with a form of the canarypox virus that does not cause disease in people. It is being studied in the treatment of some kinds of cancer. The virus is changed in the laboratory to make a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is a tumor marker. ALVAC-CEA vaccine may help the immune system find and kill cancer cells that make CEA.

alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

listen (al-VEE-oh-ler RAB-doh-MY-oh-sar-KOH-muh) A soft tissue tumor that is most common in older children and teenagers. It begins in embryonic muscle cells (cells that develop into muscles in the body). It can occur at many places in the body, but usually occurs in the trunk, arms, or legs. Also called ARMS.

alveolar soft part sarcoma

listen (al-VEE-oh-ler sar-KOH-muh) A soft tissue tumor that is most common in older children and teenagers. It begins in the soft supporting tissue that connects and surrounds the organs and other tissues. Alveolar soft part sarcoma usually occurs in the legs, but can also occur in the arms, hands, head, or neck. It can cause the growth of new blood vessels that help the tumor grow and spread. Also called ASPS.

alveoli

listen (al-VEE-oh-ly) Tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles (tiny branches of air tubes) in the lungs. The alveoli are where the lungs and the bloodstream exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. Carbon dioxide in the blood passes into the lungs through the alveoli. Oxygen in the lungs passes through the alveoli into the blood.

alvocidib

listen (al-VOH-sih-dib) A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It stops cells from dividing and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. Also called flavopiridol and HMR 1275.

Alzheimer dementia

listen (ALTS-hy-mer deh-MEN-shuh) A brain disorder that usually starts in late middle age or old age and gets worse over time. Symptoms include loss of memory, confusion, difficulty thinking, and changes in language, behavior, and personality. Also called Alzheimer disease.

Alzheimer disease

listen (ALTS-hy-mer dih-ZEEZ) A brain disorder that usually starts in late middle age or old age and gets worse over time. Symptoms include loss of memory, confusion, difficulty thinking, and changes in language, behavior, and personality. Also called Alzheimer dementia.

Amanita phalloides

listen (a-muh-NY-tuh fuh-LOY-deez) A type of poisonous mushroom that has harmful effects on the kidneys and liver. It is responsible for most fatal cases of mushroom poisoning. Also called death cap.

amantadine hydrochloride

listen (uh-MAN-tuh-deen HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used to treat infections caused by the influenza A virus. It blocks the ability of the virus to infect cells and to make more virus particles. It is also used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson disease. Amantidine hydrochloride is a type of antiviral agent.

amatuximab

listen (A-muh-TUK-sih-mab) A substance being studied in the treatment of mesothelioma. Amatuximab binds to a protein called mesothelin, which is found on some cancer cells. Amatuximab may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody MORAb-009 and MORAb-009.

Ambien

listen (AM-bee-un) A drug used to treat insomnia (inability to sleep), and anxiety. It is a type of imidazopyridine (sedative hypnotic). Also called zolpidem.

AMD

A condition in which there is a slow breakdown of cells in the center of the retina (the light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). This blocks vision in the center of the eye and can cause problems with activities such as reading and driving. AMD is most often seen in people who are over the age of 50. Also called age-related macular degeneration, ARMD, and macular degeneration.

AMD 3100

A drug used before autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma. AMD 3100 is given together with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to help move stem cells from the bone marrow to the blood. The stem cells can then be collected, stored, and given back to the patient. AMD 3100 is a type of chemokine receptor antagonist. Also called Mozobil and plerixafor.

amelanotic melanoma

listen (AY-meh-luh-NAH-tik MEH-luh-NOH-muh) A type of skin cancer in which the cells do not make the pigment melanin. Skin lesions are often irregular and may be pink, red, or have light brown, tan, or gray at the edges.

amethopterin

listen (A-meh-THOP-teh-rin) A drug used to treat some types of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and severe skin conditions, such as psoriasis. Amethopterin stops cells from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called methotrexate, MTX, and Rheumatrex.

Amevive

listen (A-meh-veev) A drug that is used to treat certain skin conditions and is being studied in the treatment of cutaneous (skin-related) T-cell cancer and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Amevive is made by combining part of an antibody with a protein that blocks the growth some types of T cells. It is a type of fusion protein and a type of immunosuppressant. Also called alefacept.

AMG 102

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to a protein called hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which may cause cancer cells to grow. Blocking this may cause cancer cells to die. AMG 102 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-HGF monoclonal antibody AMG 102.

AMG 162

A drug used to prevent or treat certain bone problems. Under the brand name Xgeva, it is used to prevent broken bones and other bone problems caused by solid tumors that have spread to bone. It is also used in certain patients to treat giant cell tumor of the bone that cannot be removed by surgery. Under the brand name Prolia, it is used to treat osteoporosis (a decrease in bone mass and density) in postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breaking bones. AMG 162 is also being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. It binds to a protein called RANKL, which keeps RANKL from binding to another protein called RANK on the surface of certain bone cells, including bone cancer cells. This may help keep bone from breaking down and cancer cells from growing. AMG 162 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called denosumab, Prolia, and Xgeva.

AMG 531

A drug used to treat patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who do not get better with other forms of treatment. In ITP, platelets (cells that cause blood clots to form) are destroyed by the immune system. AMG 531 is being studied as a way to treat low platelet counts caused by chemotherapy. It binds to the thrombopoietin receptor and causes the bone marrow to make more platelets. AMG 531 is also being studied in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (a group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells). It is a type of thrombopoietin agonist. Also called Nplate and romiplostim.

AMG 706

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and protein kinase inhibitors.

amifostine

listen (A-mih-FOS-teen) A drug used as a chemoprotective drug to control some of the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

amikacin

listen (A-mih-KAY-sin) An antibiotic drug used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called aminoglycoside antibiotics.

amino acid

listen (uh-MEE-noh A-sid) One of several molecules that join together to form proteins. There are 20 common amino acids found in proteins.

amino acid sequence

listen (uh-MEE-noh A-sid SEE-kwents) The arrangement of amino acids in a protein. Proteins can be made from 20 different kinds of amino acids, and the structure and function of each protein are determined by the kinds of amino acids used to make it and how they are arranged.

aminobenzoic acid

listen (uh-MEE-noh-ben-ZOH-ik-A-sid) A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Bacteria that live in the intestines need aminobenzoic acid to survive. Aminobenzoic acid is found in grains and foods from animals. It is being studied as a radiosensitizer (a substance that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy) and in the treatment of certain skin disorders. Also called PABA and para-aminobenzoic acid.

aminocamptothecin

listen (uh-MEE-noh-KAMP-toh-THEH-kin) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.

aminoglutethimide

listen (uh-MEE-noh-gloo-TETH-ih-mide) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Aminoglutethimide is used to decrease the production of sex hormones (estrogen in women or testosterone in men) and suppress the growth of tumors that need sex hormones to grow.

aminoglycoside antibiotic

listen (uh-MEE-noh-GLY-koh-side AN-tee-by-AH-tik) A substance that works against many types of bacteria and includes streptomycin, gentamicin, and neomycin. An aminoglycoside antibiotic is used to treat bacterial infections.

aminolevulinic acid

listen (uh-MEE-noh-LEH-vyoo-LIH-nik A-sid) The active ingredient in a drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent.

aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride

listen (uh-MEE-noh-LEH-vyoo-LIH-nik A-sid HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent. Also called Levulan and Levulan Kerastick.

aminopterin

listen (a-mih-NOP-teh-rin) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

amiodarone hydrochloride

listen (A-mee-OH-duh-rone HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used to treat certain types of abnormal heart rhythms that have not gotten better with other drugs. Amiodarone hydrochloride affects the electrical activity of the heart. It is a type of antiarrhythmic agent. Also called Corderone.

amitriptyline

listen (A-mih-TRIP-tih-LEEN) A drug that is used to treat depression and may be given to treat anxiety, sleep disorders, and pain. It is also being studied in an oral or gel form in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy. Amitriptyline is a type of tricyclic antidepressant. Also called amitriptyline hydrochloride.

amitriptyline hydrochloride

listen (A-mih-TRIP-tih-LEEN HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug that is used to treat depression and may be given to treat anxiety, sleep disorders, and pain. It is also being studied in an oral or gel form in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy. Amitriptyline hydrochloride is a type of tricyclic antidepressant. Also called amitriptyline.

AML

An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and ANLL.

ammonia

listen (uh-MOH-nyuh) A gas made of nitrogen and hydrogen. It has a strong odor and can irritate the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Ammonia is made by bacteria and decaying plants and animals and is found in water, soil, and air. Ammonia is also made by the body when proteins break down. In the laboratory, ammonia can be changed to a liquid and used in medicines, fertilizers, household cleaning liquids, and other products. It is also added to cigarettes to increase the effect of nicotine on the body.

ammonium tetrathiomolybdate

listen (uh-MOH-nee-um TEH-truh-THY-oh-muh-LIB-dayt) A substance being studied in the treatment of many types of cancer. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate removes extra copper from the body. Removing the copper may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may kill cancer cells. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate is a type of chelating agent and a type of antiangiogenesis agent.

amonafide

listen (ay-MOH-nah-fide) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors and intercalating agents.

amoxicillin

listen (uh-MOK-sih-SIH-lin) A drug used to treat some bacterial infections. Amoxicillin is a form of penicillin that is made in the laboratory. It kills certain types of bacteria. It is a type of antibiotic.

amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium

listen (uh-MOK-sih-SIH-lin-kla-vyoo-LA-nayt puh-TA-see-um) A drug used to treat bacterial infections. Adding the chemical clavulanate potassium to the antibiotic amoxicillin increases the amount of time the antibiotic stays active in the body. Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium is a type of combination antibiotic. Also called Augmentin.

amphotericin B

listen (AM-fuh-TAYR-ih-sin …) A drug used in the treatment of infections caused by fungi. It is a type of antifungal.

Amplimexon

listen (AM-plih-MEK-son) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer, including pancreatic, lung, breast, prostate, melanoma, and multiple myeloma. It belongs to the family of drugs called cyanoaziridine derivatives. Also called imexon.

ampulla

listen (am-PUH-luh) A sac-like enlargement of a canal or duct.

ampulla of Vater

listen (am-PUH-luh … VAH-ter) An enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas at the point where they enter the small intestine.

ampulla of Vater cancer

listen (am-PUH-luh … VAH-ter KAN-ser) Cancer that forms in the ampulla of Vater (an enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas where they join and enter the small intestine). Symptoms include jaundice, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Also called ampullary cancer.

ampullary cancer

listen (AM-puh-LAYR-ee KAN-ser) Cancer that forms in the ampulla of Vater (an enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas where they join and enter the small intestine). Symptoms include jaundice, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Also called ampulla of Vater cancer.

amputation

listen (am-pyoo-TAY-shun) The removal by surgery of a limb (arm or leg) or other body part because of injury or disease, such as diabetes or cancer.

amrubicin

listen (am-ROO-bih-sin) A substance being studied in the treatment of lung cancer. It is a type of anthracycline analog.

amsacrine

listen (AM-suh-kreen) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.

amuvatinib

listen (AM-yoo-VA-tih-nib) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may block certain proteins involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. Blocking these proteins may make cancer cells more sensitive to anticancer drugs and radiation therapy. Amuvatinib is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called MP470.

amygdalin

listen (uh-MIG-duh-lin) A substance found in the pits of many fruits such as apricots and papayas, and in other foods. It has been tried in some countries as a treatment for cancer, but it has not been shown to work in clinical studies. Amygdalin is not approved for use in the United States. Also called laetrile.

amylase

listen (A-mih-lays) An enzyme that helps the body digest starches.

amyloidosis

listen (A-muh-loy-DOH-sis) A group of diseases in which protein builds up in certain organs (localized amyloidosis) or throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). Amyloidosis may be either primary (with no known cause), secondary (caused by another disease, including some types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma), or hereditary (passed down from parents to children). Many organs are affected by amyloidosis. The organs affected may depend on whether the amyloidosis is the primary, secondary, or hereditary form.

anabolic steroid

listen (A-nuh-BAH-lik STAYR-oyd) A type of steroid that is used in medicine to repair body tissues and to increase appetite and the growth of muscles. Anabolic steroids are made in the laboratory from testosterone (a male hormone).

anagrelide

listen (an-AG-re-lide) A drug that is used to decrease the number of platelets in the blood in order to prevent blood clotting.

anakinra

listen (A-nuh-KIN-ruh) A substance that is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Anakinra blocks the action of interleukin 1 (IL-1). It is a type of interleukin receptor antagonist. Also called Kinaret.

anal

listen (AY-nul) Having to do with the anus. The anus is the opening of the rectum (last part of the large intestine) to the outside of the body.

anal cancer

listen (AY-nul KAN-ser) Cancer that forms in tissues of the anus. The anus is the opening of the rectum (last part of the large intestine) to the outside of the body.

anal Pap smear

listen (AY-nul smeer) A procedure in which cells are scraped from the lining of the anus (the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body) and looked at under a microscope. It is used to find cancer and changes in cells that may lead to cancer. An anal Pap smear can also show conditions that are not cancer, such as infection or inflammation. Also called anal Pap test.

anal Pap test

listen (AY-nul ) A procedure in which cells are scraped from the lining of the anus (the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body) and looked at under a microscope. It is used to find cancer and changes in cells that may lead to cancer. An anal Pap test can also show conditions that are not cancer, such as infection or inflammation. Also called anal Pap smear.

analgesia

listen (A-nul-JEE-zhee-uh) Pain relief.

analgesic

listen (A-nul-JEE-zik) A drug that reduces pain. Analgesics include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

analog

listen (A-nuh-log) In chemistry, a substance that is similar, but not identical, to another.

analysis

listen (uh-NA-lih-sis) A process in which anything complex is separated into simple or less complex parts.

anaphylactic shock

listen (A-nuh-fih-LAK-tik shok) A severe and sometimes life-threatening immune system reaction to an antigen that a person has been previously exposed to. The reaction may include itchy skin, edema, collapsed blood vessels, fainting, difficulty in breathing, and death.

anaplastic

listen (A-nuh-PLAS-tik) A term used to describe cancer cells that divide rapidly and have little or no resemblance to normal cells.

anaplastic large cell lymphoma

listen (A-nuh-PLAS-tik larj sel lim-FOH-muh) An aggressive (fast-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is usually of the T-cell type. The cancer cells express a marker called CD30 or Ki-1 on the surface, and may appear in the lymph nodes, skin, bones, soft tissues, lungs, or liver. Also called ALCL.

anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene

listen (A-nuh-PLAS-tik lim-FOH-muh KY-nays jeen) A gene that makes a protein called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which may be involved in cell growth. Mutated (changed) forms of the ALK gene and protein have been found in some types of cancer, including neuroblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. These changes may increase the growth of cancer cells. Checking for changes in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene in tumor tissue may help to plan cancer treatment. Also called ALK gene.

anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase

listen (A-nuh-PLAS-tik lim-FOH-muh reh-SEP-ter TY-ruh-seen KY-nays) A protein that is found on the outside of cells that sends signals into the cells. These signals help control cell growth and division. It is made by the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, which may be changed in some types of cancer, such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. These changes in the ALK gene can cause the cancer cells to grow and spread.

anaplastic thyroid cancer

listen (A-nuh-PLAS-tik THY-royd KAN-ser) A rare, aggressive type of thyroid cancer in which the malignant (cancer) cells look very different from normal thyroid cells.

anastomosis

listen (uh-NAS-toh-MOH-sis) A procedure to connect healthy sections of tubular structures in the body after the diseased portion has been surgically removed.

anastrozole

listen (an-AS-troh-zole) A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Anastrozole lowers the amount of estrogen made by the body. This may stop the growth of cancer cells that need estrogen to grow. Anastrozole is a type of nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. Also called Arimidex.

anatomic

listen (A-nuh-TAH-mik) Having to do with anatomy (the study of the structure of a plant or animal).

anatomist

listen (uh-NA-tuh-mist) A person who specializes in anatomy (the study of the structures of animals or plants).

anatomy

listen (uh-NA-toh-mee) The study of the structure of a plant or animal.

ANC

A measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help the body fight infection. An ANC may be used to check for infection, inflammation, leukemia, and other conditions. The lower a person’s ANC is, the higher the risk is of getting an infection. Having an ANC of less than 500 means there is a high risk of getting an infection. Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy, may reduce the ANC. Also called absolute neutrophil count.

ancestim

listen (an-SES-tim) A substance that causes blood stem cells (cells from which other types of cells develop) to change into different types of blood cells and increases the number and actions of these cells in the blood. It is being studied in the treatment of myelodysplasia. Ancestim is a type of recombinant stem cell growth factor. Also called r-metHuSCF, recombinant human methionyl stem cell factor, and Stemgen.

ancillary test

listen (AN-sih-LAYR-ree ) In a clinical trial, a medical test on a patient that is not a part of the original study design.

androblastoma

listen (AN-droh-blas-TOH-muh) A rare type of ovarian tumor in which the tumor cells secrete a male sex hormone. This may cause virilization (the appearance of male physical characteristics in females). Also called arrhenoblastoma and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.

androgen

listen (AN-droh-jen) A type of hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.

androgen ablation

listen (AN-droh-jen a-BLAY-shun) Treatment to suppress or block the production or action of male hormones. This is done by having the testicles removed, by taking female sex hormones, or by taking drugs called antiandrogens. Also called androgen deprivation and androgen suppression.

androgen deprivation

listen (AN-droh-jen DEH-prih-VAY-shun) Treatment to suppress or block the production or action of male hormones. This is done by having the testicles removed, by taking female sex hormones, or by taking drugs called antiandrogens. Also called androgen ablation and androgen suppression.

androgen receptor

listen (AN-droh-jen reh-SEP-ter) A protein that binds male hormones called androgens. Androgen receptors are found inside the cells of male reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. In prostate cancer, androgens bind to androgen receptors inside the cancer cells, which causes the cancer cells to grow. Also called AR.

androgen receptor positive

listen (AN-droh-jen reh-SEP-ter PAH-zih-tiv) Describes cells that have a protein that binds to androgens (male hormones). Cancer cells that are androgen receptor positive may need androgens to grow. These cells may stop growing or die when they are treated with substances that block the binding and actions of androgen hormones. Also called AR+.

androgen suppression

listen (AN-droh-jen suh-PREH-shun) Treatment to suppress or block the production or action of male hormones. This is done by having the testicles removed, by taking female sex hormones, or by taking drugs called antiandrogens. Also called androgen ablation and androgen deprivation.

androgen-independent

listen (AN-droh-jen…) Describes the ability of tumor cells to grow in the absence of androgens (hormones that promote the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics). Many early prostate cancers require androgens for growth, but advanced prostate cancers are often androgen-independent.

androstanolone

listen (AN-droh-STAN-uh-lone) A hormone made from testosterone in the prostate, testes, and certain other tissues. It is needed to develop and maintain male sex characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle growth. High amounts of androstanolone may increase the growth of prostate cancer and make it harder to treat. Also called DHT and dihydrotestosterone.

anecdotal report

listen (A-nek-DOH-tul reh-PORT) An incomplete description of the medical and treatment history of one or more patients. Anecdotal reports may be published in places other than peer-reviewed, scientific journals.

anemia

listen (uh-NEE-mee-uh) A condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal.

anesthesia

listen (A-nes-THEE-zhuh) A loss of feeling or awareness caused by drugs or other substances. Anesthesia keeps patients from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures. Local anesthesia is a loss of feeling in one small area of the body. Regional anesthesia is a loss of feeling in a part of the body, such as an arm or leg. General anesthesia is a loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep.

anesthesiologist

listen (A-nes-THEE-zee-AH-loh-jist) A doctor who specializes in giving drugs or other agents to prevent or relieve pain during surgery or other procedures being done in the hospital.

anesthetic

listen (A-nes-THEH-tik) A drug or other substance that causes a loss of feeling or awareness. Local anesthetics cause a loss of feeling in one small area of the body. Regional anesthetics cause a loss of feeling in a part of the body, such as an arm or leg. General anesthetics cause a loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep.

anetholtrithione

listen (A-neh-thol-try-THY-one) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

angelica root

listen (an-JEH-lih-kuh root) The root of any of a group of herbs called Angelica. It has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including gastrointestinal problems such as loss of appetite, feelings of fullness, and gas.

Angiocept

listen (AN-jee-oh-sept) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. Angiocept may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called CT-322 and VEGFR-2 inhibitor CT-322.

angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia

listen (AN-jee-oh-fuh-LIH-kyoo-ler limf node HY-per-PLAY-zhuh) A rare disorder in which benign (not cancer) growths form in lymph node tissue. There are two main ways that angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia occurs: localized (unicentric) and multicentric. Unicentric angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia affects only one group of lymph nodes in one part of the body, usually in the chest or abdomen. It may not cause symptoms. Multicentric angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia affects many groups of lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue all through the body. It can weaken the immune system and cause problems such as infection, fever, weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, nerve damage, and anemia. People with angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia have an increased risk of lymphoma. Also called Castleman disease and giant lymph node hyperplasia.

angiogenesis

listen (AN-jee-oh-JEH-neh-sis) Blood vessel formation. Tumor angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. This process is caused by the release of chemicals by the tumor and by host cells near the tumor.

angiogenesis inhibitor

listen (AN-jee-oh-JEH-neh-sis in-HIH-bih-ter) A drug or substance that keeps new blood vessels from forming. In cancer treatment, angiogenesis inhibitors may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Also called antiangiogenesis agent.

angiogram

listen (AN-jee-oh-gram) An x-ray or computer image (CT scan or MRI) of the blood vessels and blood flow in the body. A dye may be injected through a catheter (small tube) into an artery or vein to make the blood vessels easier to see. An angiogram may be used to check for an aneurysm (a bulge in a blood vessel wall), blockages in arteries, blood clots, or other problems, such as a tumor.

angiography

listen (an-jee-AH-gruh-fee) A procedure to x-ray blood vessels. The blood vessels can be seen because of an injection of a dye that shows up in the x-ray.

angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

listen (AN-jee-oh-IH-myoo-noh-BLAS-tik T-sel lim-FOH-muh) An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and hypergammaglobulinemia (increased antibodies in the blood). Other symptoms may include a skin rash, fever, weight loss, or night sweats.

angiomyolipoma

listen (AN-jee-oh-MY-oh-lih-POH-muh) A benign (noncancer) tumor of fat and muscle tissue that usually is found in the kidney. Angiomyolipomas rarely cause symptoms, but may bleed or grow large enough to be painful or cause kidney failure. They are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis (a genetic disorder in which benign tumors grow in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin, causing seizures, mental problems, and skin lesions).

angioplasty

listen (AN-jee-oh-PLAS-tee) A procedure to enlarge the opening in a blood vessel that has become narrowed or blocked by plaque (a buildup of fat and cholesterol on the inner wall of the blood vessel). Examples of angioplasty are balloon angioplasty and laser angioplasty.

angiosarcoma

listen (AN-jee-oh-sar-KOH-muh) A type of cancer that begins in the cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels. Cancer that begins in blood vessels is called hemangiosarcoma. Cancer that begins in lymph vessels is called lymphangiosarcoma.

angiostatin

listen (AN-jee-oh-STA-tin) A protein normally made by the body. It can also be made in the laboratory, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Angiostatin may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent.

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

listen (AN-jee-oh-TEN-sin-kun-VER-ting EN-zime in-HIH-bih-ter) A drug that is used to lower blood pressure. An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor is a type of antihypertensive agent. Also called ACE inhibitor.

Angiozyme

listen (AN-jee-oh-zime) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. Angiozyme is a special type of RNA made in the laboratory. It stops a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) from being made. This may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of angiogenesis inhibitor and a type of ribozyme. Also called RPI.4610.

anhydrovinblastine

listen (an-HY-droh-vin-BLAS-teen) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors.

anidulafungin

listen (uh-NIH-dyoo-luh-FUN-jin) A drug that is used to treat infections caused by fungi. It belongs to the family of drugs called antifungals.

animal model

listen (A-nih-mul MAH-dul) An animal with a disease either the same as or like a disease in humans. Animal models are used to study the development and progression of diseases and to test new treatments before they are given to humans. Animals with transplanted human cancers or other tissues are called xenograft models.

animal study

listen (A-nih-mul STUH-dee) A laboratory experiment using animals to study the development and progression of diseases. Animal studies also test how safe and effective new treatments are before they are tested in people.

animal-assisted therapy

listen (A-nih-mul-uh-SIS-ted THAYR-uh-pee) A type of therapy that uses dogs or other pets to improve the physical and mental health of patients with certain acute or chronic diseases. It is being studied as a way to relieve distress in cancer patients undergoing treatment for pain. Also called pet-facilitated therapy.

aniridia

listen (A-nih-RIH-dee-uh) A disorder in which a person is born without part or all of the iris (colored tissue at the front of the eyeball). Aniridia usually affects both eyes and causes other eye problems, including being sensitive to light and loss of vision.

ANLL

An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and AML.

annamycin

listen (A-nuh-MY-sin) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called anthracycline antibiotics.

anorexia

listen (a-nuh-REK-see-uh) An abnormal loss of the appetite for food. Anorexia can be caused by cancer, AIDS, a mental disorder (i.e., anorexia nervosa), or other diseases.

anorexia nervosa

listen (a-nuh-REK-see-uh ner-VOH-suh) An eating disorder marked by an intense fear of gaining weight, a refusal to maintain a healthy weight, and a distorted body image. People with anorexia nervosa have an abnormal loss of appetite for food, try to avoid eating, and eat as little as possible.

ANS

The part of the nervous system that controls muscles of internal organs (such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs, stomach, and intestines) and glands (such as salivary glands and sweat glands). One part of the ANS helps the body rest, relax, and digest food and another part helps a person fight or take flight in an emergency. Also called autonomic nervous system and involuntary nervous system.

ansamycin

listen (AN-suh-MY-sin) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antineoplastic antibiotics.

antagonist

listen (an-TA-guh-nist) In medicine, a substance that stops the action or effect of another substance. For example, a drug that blocks the stimulating effect of estrogen on a tumor cell is called an estrogen receptor antagonist.

antenatal

listen (AN-tee-NAY-tul) Having to do with the time a female is pregnant, before birth occurs. Also called prenatal.

anterior

listen (an-TEER-ee-er) In human anatomy, has to do with the front of a structure, or a structure found toward the front of the body.

anterior mediastinotomy

listen (an-TEER-ee-er MEE-dee-A-stih-NAH-toh-mee) A procedure in which a tube is inserted into the chest to view the tissues and organs in the area between the lungs and between the breastbone and heart. The tube is inserted through an incision next to the breastbone. This procedure is usually used to get a tissue sample from the lymph nodes on the left side of the chest. Also called Chamberlain procedure.

anterior mediastinum

listen (an-TEER-ee-er MEE-dee-uh-STY-num) The area in the front part of the chest between the lungs. Also called prevascular space.

anterior pelvic exenteration

listen (an-TEER-ee-er PEL-vik eg-ZEN-teh-RAY-shun) Surgery to remove the urethra, lower part of the ureters, uterus, cervix, vagina, and bladder.

anterior urethral cancer

listen (an-TEER-ee-er yoo-REE-thrul KAN-ser) A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the part of the urethra (the tube through which urine leaves the body) that is closest to the outside of the body.

anthracenedione

listen (AN-thruh-seen-DY-one) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called anticancer antibiotics.

anthracycline

listen (AN-thruh-SY-klin) A type of antibiotic that comes from certain types of Streptomyces bacteria. Anthracyclines are used to treat many types of cancer. Anthracyclines damage the DNA in cancer cells, causing them to die. Daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and epirubicin are anthracyclines.

anthraquinone

listen (AN-thruh-kwih-NONE) A type of anticancer drug.

antiandrogen

listen (AN-tee-AN-droh-jen) A substance that keeps androgens (male hormones) from binding to proteins called androgen receptors, which can be found in prostate cells and cells of some other tissues. Treatment with antiandrogens may stop prostate cancer cells from growing. Examples of antiandrogens used to treat prostate cancer are flutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and nilutamide.

antiandrogen therapy

listen (AN-tee-AN-droh-jen THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment with drugs used to block production or interfere with the action of male sex hormones.

antiangiogenesis

listen (AN-tee-AN-jee-oh-JEH-neh-sis) Prevention of the growth of new blood vessels.

antiangiogenesis agent

listen (AN-tee-AN-jee-oh-JEH-neh-sis AY-jent) A drug or substance that keeps new blood vessels from forming. In cancer treatment, antiangiogenesis agents may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Also called angiogenesis inhibitor.

antiangiogenic

listen (AN-tee-AN-jee-oh-JEH-nik) Having to do with reducing the growth of new blood vessels.

antianxiety agent

listen (AN-tee-ang-ZY-eh-tee AY-jent) A drug used to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as feelings of fear, dread, uneasiness, and muscle tightness, that may occur as a reaction to stress. Most antianxiety agents block the action of certain chemicals in the nervous system. Also called anxiolytic and anxiolytic agent.

antiapoptotic

listen (AN-tee-A-pop-TAH-tik) Something that prevents apoptosis. Apoptosis is a type of cell death in which a series of molecular steps in a cell leads to its death.

antibacterial

listen (AN-tee-bak-TEER-ee-ul) A substance that kills bacteria or stops them from growing and causing disease.

antibiotic

listen (AN-tee-by-AH-tik) A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms.

antibody

listen (AN-tee-BAH-dee) A protein made by plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) in response to an antigen (a substance that causes the body to make a specific immune response). Each antibody can bind to only one specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Some antibodies destroy antigens directly. Others make it easier for white blood cells to destroy the antigen. An antibody is a type of immunoglobulin.

antibody therapy

listen (AN-tee-BAH-dee THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment with an antibody, a substance that can directly kill specific tumor cells or stimulate the immune system to kill tumor cells.

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

listen (AN-tee-BAH-dee-deh-PEN-dent sel-MEE-dee-AY-ted SY-toh-tok-SIH-sih-tee) A type of immune reaction in which a target cell or microbe is coated with antibodies and killed by certain types of white blood cells. The white blood cells bind to the antibodies and release substances that kill the target cells or microbes. Also called ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

listen (AN-tee-BAH-dee-deh-PEN-dent SEL-yoo-ler SY-toh-tok-SIH-sih-tee) A type of immune reaction in which a target cell or microbe is coated with antibodies and killed by certain types of white blood cells. The white blood cells bind to the antibodies and release substances that kill the target cells or microbes. Also called ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

antibody-drug conjugate

listen (AN-tee-BAH-dee … KON-jih-gut) A substance made up of a monoclonal antibody chemically linked to a drug. The monoclonal antibody binds to specific proteins or receptors found on certain types of cells, including cancer cells. The linked drug enters these cells and kills them without harming other cells. Some antibody-drug conjugates are used to treat cancer. Also called ADC.

anticachexia

listen (AN-tee-kuh-KEK-see-uh) Describes a drug or effect that works against cachexia (loss of body weight and muscle mass).

anticancer antibiotic

listen (AN-tee-KAN-ser AN-tee-by-AH-tik) A type of anticancer drug that blocks cell growth by interfering with DNA, the genetic material in cells. Also called antineoplastic antibiotic and antitumor antibiotic.

anticancer therapy

listen (AN-tee-KAN-ser THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment to stop or prevent cancer.

anticarcinogenic

listen (AN-tee-KAR-sih-noh-JEH-nik) Having to do with preventing or delaying the development of cancer.

anti-CCR2 monoclonal antibody MLN1202

listen (AN-tee MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee ) A substance being studied as a treatment for atherosclerosis (a build-up of fat in the arteries). It is also being studied in the treatment of cancers that spread to the bone. Anti-CCR2 monoclonal antibody MLN1202 binds to a protein called CCR2, which is found on the surface of certain bone cells, white blood cells, and cancer cells. Anti-CCR2 monoclonal antibody MLN1202 blocks the action of a substance that is involved in keeping healthy bone mass. It may help keep the cancer cells from spreading to and growing in the bone. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called MLN1202.

anti-CD19 immunotoxin

listen (AN-tee IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin) A monoclonal antibody linked to a toxic substance. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of B-cell cancer. Anti-CD19 immunotoxin is made in the laboratory. It binds to CD19, a protein on the surface of normal B cells and B-cell tumors, and kills the cells.

anti-CD22 immunotoxin

listen (AN-tee IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin) A monoclonal antibody linked to a toxic substance. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of B-cell cancer. Anti-CD22 immunotoxin is made in the laboratory. It binds to CD22, a protein on the surface of normal B cells and B-cell tumors, and kills the cells.

anti-CD22 immunotoxin CAT-8015

listen (AN-tee IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin ) A monoclonal antibody linked to a toxic substance. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of B-cell cancer. Anti-CD22 immunotoxin CAT-8015 is made in the laboratory. It binds to CD22, a protein on the surface of normal B cells and B-cell tumors, and kills the cells. Also called CAT-8015.

anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody

listen (AN-tee MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of leukemia and lymphoma. Anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody binds to a protein called CD45, which is found on most types of blood cells and some types of leukemia and lymphoma cells. Anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

anti-CEA antibody

listen (AN-tee … AN-tee-BAH-dee) An antibody against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein present on certain types of cancer cells.

anticoagulant

listen (AN-tee-koh-A-gyuh-lunt) A substance that is used to prevent and treat blood clots in blood vessels and the heart. Also called blood thinner.

anticonvulsant

listen (AN-tee-kun-VUL-sunt) A drug or other substance used to prevent or stop seizures or convulsions. Also called antiepileptic.

antidepressant

listen (AN-tee-dee-PREH-sunt) A drug used to treat depression.

antidiarrheal

listen (AN-tee-dy-uh-REE-ul) A substance used to treat diarrhea (frequent and watery bowel movements).

antiemetic

listen (AN-tee-eh-MEH-tik) A drug that prevents or reduces nausea and vomiting.

anti-EpCAM-Pseudomonas-exotoxin fusion protein

listen (AN-tee … SOO-doh-MOH-nus-EK-soh-TOK-sin FYOO-zhun PROH-teen) A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of head and neck cancer. Anti-EpCAM-Pseudomonas-exotoxin fusion protein is made by linking a monoclonal antibody fragment to a toxic protein that may kill cancer cells. It binds to EpCAM (a protein on the surface of epithelial cells and some types of cancer cells). Also called Proxinium and VB4-845.

antiepileptic

listen (AN-tee-EH-pih-LEP-tik) A drug or other substance used to prevent or stop seizures or convulsions. Also called anticonvulsant.

antiestrogen

listen (AN-tee-ES-truh-jin) A substance that keeps cells from making or using estrogen (a hormone that plays a role in female sex characteristics, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy). Antiestrogens may stop some cancer cells from growing and are used to prevent and treat breast cancer. They are also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. An antiestrogen is a type of hormone antagonist. Also called estrogen blocker.

antifolate

listen (AN-tee-FOH-layt) A type of drug that stops cells from using folic acid to make DNA and may kill cancer cells. Certain antifolates are used to treat some types of cancer and inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Also called folate antagonist and folic acid antagonist.

antifungal

listen (AN-tee-FUN-gul) A drug that treats infections caused by fungi.

antigen

listen (AN-tih-jen) Any substance that causes the body to make an immune response against that substance. Antigens include toxins, chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or other substances that come from outside the body. Body tissues and cells, including cancer cells, also have antigens on them that can cause an immune response. These antigens can also be used as markers in laboratory tests to identify those tissues or cells.

antigen-presenting cell

listen (AN-tih-jen-preh-ZEN-ting sel) A type of immune cell that boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system. An antigen-presenting cell is a type of phagocyte. Also called APC.

antigen-presenting cell vaccine

listen (AN-tih-jen-preh-ZEN-ting sel vak-SEEN) A vaccine made of antigens and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). APCs boost an immune response by presenting antigens on their surfaces to other cells of the immune system. Also called APC vaccine.

antiglobulin test

listen (AN-tee-GLAH-byoo-lin …) A laboratory test to identify antibodies that can bind to the surface of red blood cells or platelets and destroy them. This test is used to diagnose certain blood disorders in which patients make antibodies to their own red blood cells or platelets. It is also used to determine blood type. Also called Coombs test.

anti-HGF monoclonal antibody AMG 102

listen (AN-tee MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee …) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to a protein called hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which may cause cancer cells to grow. Blocking this may cause cancer cells to die. Anti-HGF monoclonal antibody AMG 102 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called AMG 102.

antihistamine

listen (AN-tee-HIS-tuh-meen) A type of drug that blocks the action of histamines, which can cause fever, itching, sneezing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. Antihistamines are used to prevent fevers in patients receiving blood transfusions and to treat allergies, coughs, and colds.

antihormone therapy

listen (AN-tee-HOR-mone THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment with drugs, surgery, or radiation in order to block the production or action of a hormone. Antihormone therapy may be used in cancer treatment because certain hormones are able to stimulate the growth of some types of tumors.

antihypertensive agent

listen (AN-tee-HY-per-TEN-siv AY-jent) A type of drug used to treat high blood pressure. There are many different types of antihypertensive agents, and they work in different ways to lower blood pressure. Some remove extra fluid and salt from the body. Others relax and widen the blood vessels or slow the heartbeat. A person may respond better and have fewer side effects with one drug than with another. Some patients need more than one antihypertensive agent to lower their blood pressure.

anti-idiotype vaccine

listen (AN-tee-IH-dee-oh-TIPE vak-SEEN) A vaccine made of antibodies that see other antibodies as the antigen and bind to it. Anti-idiotype vaccines can stimulate the body to produce antibodies against tumor cells.

anti-IGF1R recombinant monoclonal antibody MK-0646

listen (AN-tee ree-KOM-bih-nunt MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee ) A substance being studied in the treatment of many types of cancer. Anti-IGF1R recombinant monoclonal antibody MK-0646 binds to a protein called insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) on the surface of cells. This may prevent the cells from growing when IGF is present. It may also kill cancer cells. Anti-IGF1R recombinant monoclonal antibody MK-0646 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called MK-0646.

anti-IL-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody

listen (AN-tee … ky-MEER-ik MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee) A drug used to treat a rare condition called Castleman disease in patients who do not have HIV or human herpesvirus 8. It is also being studied in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Anti-IL-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody binds to a protein called interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is made by some white blood cells and other cells in the body. Anti-IL-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody may help reduce inflammation and stop the growth of cancer cells or abnormal blood cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called cCLB8, CNTO 328, siltuximab, and Sylvant.

anti-inflammatory

listen (AN-tee-in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee) Having to do with reducing inflammation.

anti-inflammatory agent

listen (AN-tee-in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee AY-jent) A drug or substance that reduces inflammation (redness, swelling, and pain) in the body. Anti-inflammatory agents block certain substances in the body that cause inflammation. They are used to treat many different conditions. Some anti-inflammatory agents are being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

antilymphocyte globulin

listen (AN-tee-LIM-foh-site GLAH-byoo-lin) Serum from blood that contains antibodies that bind to human T cells. Antilymphocyte globulin is given to a patient before a stem cell transplant to kill T cells and lower the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). It is also used to treat GVHD and after a kidney transplant to help keep the body from rejecting the kidney. Also called antithymocyte globulin.

anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody MORAb-009

listen (AN-tee-MEH-zoh-THEE-lin MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee) A substance being studied in the treatment of mesothelioma. Anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody MORAb-009 binds to a protein called mesothelin, which is found on some cancer cells. Anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody MORAb-009 may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called amatuximab and MORAb-009.

antimetabolite

listen (AN-tee-meh-TA-boh-lite) A drug that is very similar to natural chemicals in a normal biochemical reaction in cells but different enough to interfere with the normal division and functions of cells.

antimicrobial

listen (AN-tee-my-KROH-bee-ul) A substance that kills microorganisms such as bacteria or mold, or stops them from growing and causing disease.

antimicrotubule agent

listen (AN-tee-MY-kroh-TOO-byool AY-jent) A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). Antimicrotubule agents interfere with microtubules (cellular structures that help move chromosomes during mitosis). They are used to treat cancer.

antimitotic agent

listen (AN-tee-my-TAH-tik AY-jent) A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). They are used to treat cancer. Also called mitotic inhibitor.

antineoplastic

listen (AN-tee-NEE-oh-PLAS-tik) Blocking the formation of neoplasms (growths that may become cancer).

antineoplastic antibiotic

listen (AN-tee-NEE-oh-PLAS-tik AN-tee-by-AH-tik) A type of anticancer drug that blocks cell growth by interfering with DNA, the genetic material in cells. Also called anticancer antibiotic and antitumor antibiotic.

antineoplaston

listen (AN-tee-NEE-oh-PLAS-ton) A substance isolated from normal human blood and urine that is being tested as a type of treatment for some tumors and AIDS.

antioncogene

listen (AN-tee-ON-koh-jeen) A type of gene that makes a protein called a tumor suppressor protein that helps control cell growth. Mutations (changes in DNA) in antioncogenes may lead to cancer. Also called tumor suppressor gene.

antioxidant

listen (AN-tee-OK-sih-dent) A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other diseases of aging. Antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins A, C, and E, and other natural and manufactured substances.

antiparasitic

listen (AN-tee-PAYR-uh-SIH-tik) A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and parasites. It is also used in the treatment of some cancers.

anti-PDGFR alpha monoclonal antibody IMC-3G3

listen (AN-tee AL-fuh MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee ) A substance being studied in the treatment of glioblastoma (a type of brain tumor) that has come back. It binds to receptors for a protein called platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This keeps PDGF from binding to the cells. This may stop the growth of cancer cells and blood vessels that have the receptors for PDGF. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha monoclonal antibody IMC-3G3 and IMC-3G3.

anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha monoclonal antibody IMC-3G3

listen (AN-tee-PLAYT-let-deh-RIVED grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter AL-fuh MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee ) A substance being studied in the treatment of glioblastoma (a type of brain tumor) that has come back. It binds to receptors for a protein called platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This keeps PDGF from binding to the cells. This may stop the growth of cancer cells and blood vessels that have the receptors for PDGF. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-PDGFR alpha monoclonal antibody IMC-3G3 and IMC-3G3.

antiprogestin

listen (AN-tee-proh-JES-tin) A substance that prevents cells from making or using progesterone (a hormone that plays a role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy). Antiprogestins may stop some cancer cells from growing and they are being studied in the treatment of breast cancer. An antiprogestin is a type of hormone antagonist.

antipsychotic

listen (AN-tee-sy-KAH-tik) A type of drug used to treat symptoms of psychosis. These include hallucinations (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, or touches that a person believes to be real but are not real), delusions (false beliefs), and dementia (loss of the ability to think, remember, learn, make decisions, and solve problems). Most antipsychotics block the action of certain chemicals in the nervous system. Also called antipsychotic agent and neuroleptic agent.

antipsychotic agent

listen (AN-tee-sy-KAH-tik AY-jent) A type of drug used to treat symptoms of psychosis. These include hallucinations (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, or touches that a person believes to be real but are not real), delusions (false beliefs), and dementia (loss of the ability to think, remember, learn, make decisions, and solve problems). Most antipsychotic agents block the action of certain chemicals in the nervous system. Also called antipsychotic and neuroleptic agent.

antiretroviral therapy

listen (AN-tee-REH-troh-VY-rul THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment with drugs that inhibit the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other types of retroviruses to multiply in the body.

antisense agent

listen (AN-tee-sents AY-jent) Small pieces of DNA or RNA that can bind to specific molecules of RNA. This blocks the ability of the RNA to make a protein or work in other ways. Antisense agents may be used to block the production of proteins needed for cell growth. They are being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. Also called antisense oligonucleotide.

antisense c-fos

listen (AN-tee-sents …) A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer and is being studied in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and certain skin conditions. It blocks the production of a protein called c-fos, which helps control cell growth. This may kill cancer cells that need c-fos to grow. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide. Also called c-fos antisense oligonucleotide.

antisense DNA

listen (AN-tee-sents ) Small pieces of DNA that can bind to specific molecules of RNA and block the cells ability to use the RNA to make a protein or work in other ways. Antisense DNA may be used to block the production of proteins needed for cell growth. It is being studied in the treatment of many types of cancer.

antisense oligonucleotide

listen (AN-tee-sents AH-lih-goh-NOO-klee-oh-tide) Small pieces of DNA or RNA that can bind to specific molecules of RNA. This blocks the ability of the RNA to make a protein or work in other ways. Antisense oligonucleotides may be used to block the production of proteins needed for cell growth. They are being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. Also called antisense agent.

antisense oligonucleotide therapy

listen (AN-tee-sents AH-lih-goh-NOO-klee-oh-tide THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment with antisense oligonucleotides. These are small pieces of DNA or RNA that can bind to specific molecules of RNA. This blocks the cells ability to use the RNA to make a protein or work in other ways. Antisense oligonucleotides are being studied in the treatment of many types of cancer. Also called antisense therapy.

antisense RNA

listen (AN-tee-sents ) Small pieces of RNA that can bind to specific molecules of RNA and block the cells ability to use the RNA to make a protein or work in other ways. Antisense RNA may be used to block the production of proteins needed for cell growth. It is being studied in the treatment of many types of cancer.

antisense therapy

listen (AN-tee-sents THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment with antisense oligonucleotides. These are small pieces of DNA or RNA that can bind to specific molecules of RNA. This blocks the cells ability to use the RNA to make a protein or work in other ways. Antisense oligonucleotides are being studied in the treatment of many types of cancer. Also called antisense oligonucleotide therapy.

antisocial

listen (AN-tee-SOH-shul) Describes behavior that ignores the rights of others and the practices and laws of society.

anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody GC1008

listen (AN-tee … BAY-tuh MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee …) A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other cancers and conditions. Anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody GC1008 binds to a protein called transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which is found on some cancer cells. Anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody GC1008 may help keep cancer cells from growing and prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called fresolimumab and GC1008.

antithymocyte globulin

listen (AN-tee-THY-moh-site GLAH-byoo-lin) Serum from blood that contains antibodies that bind to human T cells. Antithymocyte globulin is given to a patient before a stem cell transplant to kill T cells and lower the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). It is also used to treat GVHD and after a kidney transplant to help keep the body from rejecting the kidney. Also called antilymphocyte globulin.

anti-TRAIL R1-mAb

listen (AN-tee …) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It binds to a protein called TRAIL R1 on the surface of some tumor cells. This may kill the tumor cells. Anti-TRAIL R1-mAb is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called HGS-ETR1 and mapatumumab.

anti-TRAIL R2 mAb HGS-ETR2

listen (AN-tee …) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It binds to a protein called TRAIL-R2 on the surface of some tumor cells, which may kill the tumor cells. Anti-TRAIL R2 mAb HGS-ETR2 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called HGS-ETR2 and lexatumumab.

antituberculosis

listen (AN-tee-too-BER-kyoo-LOH-sis) Describes a drug or effect that works against tuberculosis (a contagious bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs).

antitumor

listen (AN-tee-TOO-mer) Having to do with stopping abnormal cell growth.

antitumor antibiotic

listen (AN-tee-TOO-mer AN-tee-by-AH-tik) A type of anticancer drug that blocks cell growth by interfering with DNA, the genetic material in cells. Also called anticancer antibiotic and antineoplastic antibiotic.

anti-VEGFR monoclonal antibody

listen (AN-tee MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee) A substance that binds to receptors for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which may be found on some types of cancer cells. This may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. There are different types of anti-VEGFR monoclonal antibodies being studied in the treatment of cancer. These substances are a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of monoclonal antibody.

anti-VEGFR-2 fully human monoclonal antibody IMC-1121B

listen (AN-tee ful-ee HYOO-mun MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee ) A drug used with other drugs to treat colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer that have spread to other parts of the body. It is used alone or with another drug to treat cancer of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction (area where the esophagus connects to the stomach) that is advanced or has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Anti-VEGFR-2 fully human monoclonal antibody IMC-1121B binds to receptors for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which may be found on some types of cancer cells. This may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Anti-VEGFR-2 fully human monoclonal antibody IMC-1121B is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Cyramza, IMC-1121B, and ramucirumab.

antiviral

listen (AN-tee-VY-rul) A drug used to treat infections caused by viruses.

anus

listen (AY-nus) The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.

anxiety

listen (ang-ZY-eh-tee) Feelings of fear, dread, and uneasiness that may occur as a reaction to stress. A person with anxiety may sweat, feel restless and tense, and have a rapid heart beat. Extreme anxiety that happens often over time may be a sign of an anxiety disorder.

anxiolysis

listen (ANG-zee-AH-lih-sis) A level of sedation in which a person is very relaxed and may be awake. The person is able to answer questions and follow instructions. Anxiolysis is caused by special drugs and is used to help relieve anxiety during certain medical or surgical procedures. Also called minimal sedation.

anxiolytic

listen (ANG-zee-oh-LIH-tik) A drug used to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as feelings of fear, dread, uneasiness, and muscle tightness, that may occur as a reaction to stress. Most anxiolytics block the action of certain chemicals in the nervous system. Also called antianxiety agent and anxiolytic agent.

anxiolytic agent

listen (ANG-zee-oh-LIH-tik AY-jent) A drug used to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as feelings of fear, dread, uneasiness, and muscle tightness, that may occur as a reaction to stress. Most anxiolytic agents block the action of certain chemicals in the nervous system. Also called antianxiety agent and anxiolytic.

Anzemet

listen (AN-zeh-met) A drug used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It is also used to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery. Anzemet blocks the action of the chemical serotonin, which binds to certain nerves and may trigger nausea and vomiting. Blocking serotonin may help lessen nausea and vomiting. It is a type of serotonin receptor antagonist and a type of antiemetic. Also called dolasetron mesylate.

aorta

listen (ay-OR-tuh) The largest artery in the body. It carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to vessels that reach the rest of the body.

aortocoronary bypass

listen (ay-OR-toh-KOR-uh-NAYR-ee BY-pass) Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart. This restores the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the heart. Also called CAB and coronary artery bypass.

AP23573

A substance being studied in the treatment of soft tissue and bone cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of other solid tumors and hematologic cancer. AP23573 stops cells from dividing and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of mTOR inhibitor. Also called ridaforolimus.

AP5346

A substance being studied in the treatment of head and neck cancer. It may kill cancer cells by carrying an anticancer drug into the tumor. It is a type of platinum compound.

APC

A type of immune cell that boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system. An APC is a type of phagocyte. Also called antigen-presenting cell.

APC vaccine

listen ( vak-SEEN) A vaccine made of antigens and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). APCs boost an immune response by presenting antigens on their surfaces to other cells of the immune system. Also called antigen-presenting cell vaccine.

APC8015

A drug used to treat prostate cancer that has spread. It is made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer. The cells are treated with a protein that is made by combining a protein found on prostate cancer cells with a growth factor. When the cells are injected back into the patient, they may stimulate T cells to kill prostate cancer cells. APC8015 is a type of vaccine and a type of cellular adoptive immunotherapy. Also called Provenge and sipuleucel-T.

APC8015F

A vaccine made from immune system cells taken from a patient with prostate cancer and frozen for future use. The cells are treated in the laboratory with a growth factor attached to a protein called prostatic-acid phosphatase (PAP), which is found on prostate cancer cells. When APC8015F is injected into the patient, it may cause T cells (a type of white blood cell) to kill tumor cells that have PAP on them.

apheresis

listen (a-feh-REE-sis) A procedure in which blood is collected, part of the blood such as platelets or white blood cells is taken out, and the rest of the blood is returned to the donor. Also called pheresis.

Apidra

listen (uh-PEE-druh) A drug used to control the amount of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes mellitus. It is a form of the hormone insulin that is made in the laboratory. Apidra gets into the blood faster than insulin when it is injected under the skin before or shortly after a meal. It is a type of therapeutic insulin. Also called insulin glulisine.

APL

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of acute myeloid leukemia in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow. It is usually marked by an exchange of parts of chromosomes 15 and 17. Also called acute promyelocytic leukemia and promyelocytic leukemia.

aplastic anemia

listen (AY-PLAS-tik uh-NEE-mee-uh) A condition in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells.

aplidine

listen (AP-lih-deen) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is obtained from a marine organism.

APN

A registered nurse who has additional education and training in how to diagnose and treat disease. APNs are licensed at the state level and certified by national nursing organizations. In cancer care, an APN may manage the primary care of patients and their families, based on a practice agreement with a doctor. Also called advanced practice nurse, NP, and nurse practitioner.

Apo-2L

listen (AY-poh ) A cell protein that can attach to certain molecules in some cancer cells and may kill the cells. Apo-2L is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Also called TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, TRAIL, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

apocrine gland

listen (A-poh-krin …) A type of gland that is found in the skin, breast, eyelid, and ear. Apocrine glands in the breast secrete fat droplets into breast milk and those in the ear help form earwax. Apocrine glands in the skin and eyelid are sweat glands. Most apocrine glands in the skin are in the armpits, the groin, and the area around the nipples of the breast. Apocrine glands in the skin are scent glands, and their secretions usually have an odor. Another type of gland (eccrine gland or simple sweat gland) produces most sweat.

apolizumab

listen (a-puh-LIZ-yoo-mab) A substance being studied in the treatment of hematologic (blood) cancers. Apolizumab binds to a protein called ID10, which is found on the surface of some types of immune cells and cancer cells. It may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

apoptosis

listen (A-pop-TOH-sis) A type of cell death in which a series of molecular steps in a cell lead to its death. This is one method the body uses to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells. The process of apoptosis may be blocked in cancer cells. Also called programmed cell death.

appendage

listen (uh-PEN-dij) In medicine, a body part (such as an arm or leg) that is attached to the main part of the body.

appendectomy

listen (A-pen-DEK-toh-mee) Surgery to remove the appendix (small finger-shaped pouch at the end of the first part of the large intestine).

appendix

listen (uh-PEN-dix) A small, fingerlike pouch that sticks out from the cecum (the first part of the large intestine near the end of the small intestine).

appetite

listen (A-peh-tite) A desire to satisfy a physical or mental need, such as for food, sex, or adventure.

aprepitant

listen (uh-PREH-pih-tunt) A drug used together with other drugs to prevent and control the nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment. It is also used to treat nausea and vomiting after surgery. It is a type of antiemetic and a type of substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. Also called Emend.

Aptivus

listen (AP-tih-vus) A drug used with another drug, ritonavir, to treat patients who are infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and have been treated with other anti-HIV drugs. Aptivus blocks the HIV virus from making copies of itself. It is a type of anti-HIV agent and a type of protease inhibitor. Also called tipranavir sodium.

aqueous

listen (A-kwee-us) Having to do with water.

AR

A protein that binds male hormones called androgens. ARs are found inside the cells of male reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. In prostate cancer, androgens bind to ARs inside the cancer cells, which causes the cancer cells to grow. Also called androgen receptor.

AR+

listen Describes cells that have a protein that binds to androgens (male hormones). Cancer cells that are AR+ may need androgens to grow. These cells may stop growing or die when they are treated with substances that block the binding and actions of androgen hormones. Also called androgen receptor positive.

arctigenin

listen (ARK-tih-JEH-nin) A substance found in certain plants, including burdock. It has shown antiviral and anticancer effects. Arctigenin belongs to a group of substances called lignans.

arctiin

listen (ARK-tine) A substance found in certain plants, including burdock. It has shown anticancer effects. Arctiin belongs to a group of substances called lignans.

Aredia

listen (uh-REH-dee-uh) A drug used to treat hypercalcemia (high blood levels of calcium) caused by certain types of cancer. It is also used with other anticancer drugs to treat multiple myeloma and breast cancer that has spread to bone. It is also used to treat Paget disease of the bone. Aredia may help keep bone from breaking down and prevent the loss of calcium from the bones. It is a type of bisphosphonate. Also called pamidronate disodium.

areola

listen (ayr-EE-oh-luh) The area of dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.

arginine

listen (AR-jih-neen) One of the twenty common amino acids (building blocks of proteins). Arginine is being studied as a nutritional supplement in the treatment and prevention of cancer and other conditions. Also called L-arginine.

arginine butyrate

listen (AR-jih-neen BYOO-tuh-rayt) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

argon beam coagulator ablation

listen (AR-gon beem coh-A-gyuh-LAY-ter a-BLAY-shun) A procedure that destroys tissue with an electrical current passed through a stream of argon gas to the tissue. It is used to treat endometriosis and other conditions, and to stop blood loss during surgery.

Arimidex

listen (uh-RIH-mih-dex) A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Arimidex lowers the amount of estrogen made by the body. This may stop the growth of cancer cells that need estrogen to grow. Arimidex is a type of nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. Also called anastrozole.

Arixtra

listen (uh-RIK-struh) A drug used to prevent blood clots from forming inside blood vessels in the leg. It is being studied in the prevention of blood clots in some cancer patients, including women having surgery for cancer of the reproductive tract. It is a type of anticoagulant. Also called fondaparinux and fondaparinux sodium.

ARMD

A condition in which there is a slow breakdown of cells in the center of the retina (the light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). This blocks vision in the center of the eye and can cause problems with activities such as reading and driving. ARMD is most often seen in people who are over the age of 50. Also called age-related macular degeneration, AMD, and macular degeneration.

armodafinil

listen (ar-moh-DA-fih-nil) A drug that is used to treat certain sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy. It makes patients feel more alert and awake. It is also being studied in the treatment of insomnia and fatigue in patients treated for cancer. Armodafinil acts in a part of the brain that controls sleep and wakefulness. It is a type of wakefulness-promoting agent. Also called Nuvigil.

ARMS

A soft tissue tumor that is most common in older children and teenagers. It begins in embryonic muscle cells (cells that develop into muscles in the body). It can occur at many places in the body, but usually occurs in the trunk, arms, or legs. Also called alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

Aromasin

listen (uh-ROH-muh-sin) A drug used to treat advanced breast cancer and to prevent recurrent breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have already been treated with tamoxifen. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Aromasin causes a decrease in the amount of estrogen made by the body. It is a type of aromatase inhibitor. Also called exemestane.

aromatase inhibitor

listen (uh-ROH-muh-tays in-HIH-bih-ter) A drug that prevents the formation of estradiol, a female hormone, by interfering with an aromatase enzyme. Aromatase inhibitors are used as a type of hormone therapy for postmenopausal women who have hormone-dependent breast cancer.

aromatherapist

listen (uh-ROH-muh-THAYR-uh-pist) A person who practices a type of complementary medicine called aromatherapy. This therapy uses plant oils that give off strong, pleasant smells to promote relaxation and a sense of well-being. The plant oils are usually inhaled or put on the skin using wet cloths, baths, or massage.

aromatherapy

listen (uh-ROH-muh-THAYR-uh-pee) A type of complementary and alternative medicine that uses plant oils that give off strong pleasant aromas (smells) to promote relaxation, a sense of well-being, and healing.

aromatherapy infusion

listen (uh-ROH-muh-THAYR-uh-pee in-FYOO-zhun) The process of heating (without boiling) a mixture of water and an essential oil (scented liquid taken from a plant) to release a pleasant aroma. Aromatherapy infusion may also refer to the process of heating an herb in liquid to release the essential oils. Inhaled oxygen scented by aromatherapy infusion is being studied as a complementary therapy (used in addition to standard treatments) to relieve pain and shorten recovery time in patients undergoing colonoscopy.

aromatherapy massage

listen (uh-ROH-muh-THAYR-uh-pee muh-SAZH) A type of complementary and alternative medicine that uses rubbing and kneading of the skin with plant oils that give off strong, pleasant aromas (smells) to promote relaxation, a sense of well-being, and healing.

aromatic

listen (AYR-oh-MA-tik) Having an odor, which often is pleasant or spicy.

arousal

listen (uh-ROW-zul) The state of being alert and ready to respond, or waking from sleep.

Arranon

listen (AYR-rah-non) A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called 506U78 and nelarabine.

arrhenoblastoma

listen (uh-REE-noh-blas-TOH-muh) A rare type of ovarian tumor in which the tumor cells secrete a male sex hormone. This may cause virilization (the appearance of male physical characteristics in females). Also called androblastoma and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.

arsenic

listen (ARS-nik) A poisonous chemical used to kill weeds and pests. Also used in cancer therapy.

arsenic trioxide

listen (AR-seh-nik try-OK-side) A drug used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that has not gotten better or that has come back after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called Trisenox.

art therapy

listen ( THAYR-uh-pee) Treatment that uses the making of art and the response to art to improve ones physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Art therapy is sometimes used together with psychotherapy (talk therapy).

arterial embolization

listen (ar-TEER-ee-ul EM-boh-lih-ZAY-shun) A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor or an abnormal area of tissue is blocked. During arterial embolization, a small incision (cut) is made in the inner thigh and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted and guided into an artery near the tumor or abnormal tissue. Once the catheter is in place, small particles made of tiny gelatin sponges or beads are injected. This blocks the artery and stops the flow of blood to the tumor or abnormal area of tissue. Arterial embolization is used to treat some types of liver cancer, kidney cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors. It may also be used to treat uterine fibroids, aneurysms, and other conditions. Also called TAE and transarterial embolization.

arteriogram

listen (ar-TEER-ee-oh-gram) An x-ray of arteries. The person receives an injection of a dye that outlines the vessels on the x-ray.

arteriography

listen (ar-TEER-ee-AH-gruh-fee) A procedure to x-ray arteries. The arteries can be seen because of an injection of a dye that outlines the vessels on the x-ray.

artery

listen (AR-tuh-ree) A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to tissues and organs in the body.

arthralgia

listen (ar-THRAL-juh) Joint pain.

arthritis

listen (ar-THRY-tis) A disease that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.

artificial pacemaker

listen (AR-tih-FIH-shul PAYS-may-ker) An electronic device that is implanted in the body to monitor heart rate and rhythm. It gives the heart electrical stimulation when it does not beat normally. It runs on batteries and has long, thin wires that connect it to the heart. Also called cardiac pacemaker and pacemaker.

Arzerra

listen (ar-ZAYR-uh) A drug used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that has not gotten better with other anticancer drugs. It is also used with chlorambucil in patients who have not already been treated and cannot receive certain anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Arzerra binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of white blood cell) and some types of leukemia and lymphoma cells. This may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Arzerra is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called HuMax-CD20 and ofatumumab.

arzoxifene hydrochloride

listen (ar-ZOK-sih-feen HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A substance being studied in the treatment of osteoporosis and breast cancer. Arzoxifene hydrochloride is made in the laboratory and binds to estrogen receptors in the body. It is a type of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Also called LY353381 hydrochloride.

asbestos

listen (as-BES-tus) A group of minerals that take the form of tiny fibers. Asbestos has been used as insulation against heat and fire in buildings. Loose asbestos fibers breathed into the lungs can cause several serious diseases, including lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma (cancer found in the lining of the lungs, chest, or abdomen). Asbestos that is swallowed may cause cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

asbestosis

listen (as-bes-TOH-sis) A lung disease caused by breathing in particles of asbestos (a group of minerals that take the form of tiny fibers). Symptoms include coughing, trouble breathing, and chest pain caused by scarring and permanent damage to lung tissue. Asbestosis increases the risk of lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma (cancer found in the lining of the lungs, chest, or abdomen).

ASC-H

A finding of abnormal cells in a Pap test. It means there are abnormal squamous cells in the tissue that lines the outer part of the cervix. ASC-H may be a sign of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), which may become cervical cancer if untreated. More testing may be needed. Also called atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade lesion.

ascites

listen (uh-SY-teez) Abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen that may cause swelling. In late-stage cancer, tumor cells may be found in the fluid in the abdomen. Ascites also occurs in patients with liver disease.

ascorbic acid

listen (uh-SKOR-bik A-sid) A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Ascorbic acid helps fight infections, heal wounds, and keep tissues healthy. It is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Ascorbic acid is found in all fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, strawberries, cantaloupe, green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, leafy greens, and potatoes. It is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Ascorbic acid is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Also called vitamin C.

ASCUS

listen A finding of abnormal cells in the tissue that lines the outer part of the cervix. ASCUS is the most common abnormal finding in a Pap test. It may be a sign of infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It may also be a sign of a benign (not cancer) growth, such as a cyst or polyp or, in menopausal women, of low hormone levels. More testing, such as an HPV test, may be needed. Also called ASC-US and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

ASC-US

A finding of abnormal cells in the tissue that lines the outer part of the cervix. ASC-US is the most common abnormal finding in a Pap test. It may be a sign of infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It may also be a sign of a benign (not cancer) growth, such as a cyst or polyp or, in menopausal women, of low hormone levels. More testing, such as an HPV test, may be needed. Also called ASCUS and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

aseptic necrosis

listen (ay-SEP-tik neh-KROH-sis) A condition in which there is a loss of blood flow to bone tissue, which causes the bone to die. It is most common in the hips, knees, shoulders, and ankles. It may be caused by long-term use of steroid medicines, alcohol abuse, joint injuries, and certain diseases, such as cancer and arthritis. It may also occur at some point in time after cancer treatment that included methotrexate, bisphosphonates, or corticosteroids. Also called avascular necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and osteonecrosis.

Ashkenazi Jews

listen (ASH-keh-NAH-zee jooz) One of two major ancestral groups of Jewish individuals. The ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews lived in Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Germany, Poland, Russia). The other group is called Sephardic Jews and includes those whose ancestors lived in North Africa, the Middle East, and Spain. Most Jews living in the United States are of Ashkenazi descent.

asparaginase

listen (as-PAYR-uh-jih-NAYS) A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer. It is an enzyme taken from the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. Also called Elspar and L-asparaginase.

asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi

listen (as-PAYR-uh-jih-NAYS er-WIH-nee-uh krih-SAN-theh-my) A drug used with other anticancer drugs to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is an enzyme that comes from the Erwinia chrysanthemi bacterium. It is used in patients who cannot take a similar drug that comes from the E. coli bacterium. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of cancer cells that need asparagine to grow. It may also kill cancer cells. Also called Erwinaze.

aspartate transaminase

listen (as-PAR-tayt tranz-A-mih-nays) An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of aspartate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and SGOT.

aspergillosis

listen (AS-per-jih-LOH-sis) An infectious fungal disease that occurs most often in the skin, ears, nasal sinuses, and lungs of people with suppressed immune systems.

Aspergillus

listen (AS-per-JIH-lus) Fungi commonly found in soil. Certain types of Aspergillus may cause disease, especially in people who have suppressed immune systems.

aspirate

Aspirate (pronounced AS-pih-rit) refers to fluid, tissue, or other substance that is withdrawn from a body cavity, cyst, or tumor. Aspirate (pronounced AS-pih-rayt) refers to the act of withdrawing the fluid, tissue, or other substance through a needle. It also refers to the accidental breathing in of food or fluid into the lungs. This can cause serious problems, such as pneumonia and other lung problems.

aspiration

listen (AS-pih-RAY-shun) Removal of fluid or tissue through a needle. Also, the accidental breathing in of food or fluid into the lungs.

aspirin

listen (AS-pih-rin) A drug that reduces pain, fever, inflammation, and blood clotting. Aspirin belongs to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. It is also being studied in cancer prevention.

ASPS

A soft tissue tumor that is most common in older children and teenagers. It begins in the soft supporting tissue that connects and surrounds the organs and other tissues. ASPS usually occurs in the legs, but can also occur in the arms, hands, head, or neck. It can cause the growth of new blood vessels that help the tumor grow and spread. Also called alveolar soft part sarcoma.

assay

listen (A-say) A laboratory test to find and measure the amount of a specific substance.

assent process

listen (uh-SENT PRAH-ses) A process that is required by law in which children or adolescents are given easy-to-understand information about a clinical trial to help them decide if they want to take part in the trial. The patient is given a chance to ask questions about what will happen during the trial, why its being done, and what they will be asked to do. Formal consent to enter the trial comes from the parent or guardian.

assessment

listen (uh-SES-ment) In healthcare, a process used to learn about a patients condition. This may include a complete medical history, medical tests, a physical exam, a test of learning skills, tests to find out if the patient is able to carry out the tasks of daily living, a mental health evaluation, and a review of social support and community resources available to the patient.

assistive device

listen (uh-SIS-tiv dee-VISE) A tool that helps a person with a disability to do a certain task. Examples are a cane, wheelchair, scooter, walker, hearing aid, or special bed.

assistive technology

listen (uh-SIS-tiv tek-NAH-loh-jee) Any device or technology that helps a disabled person. Examples are special grips for holding utensils, computer screen monitors to help a person with low vision read more easily, computers controlled by talking, telephones that make the sound louder, and lifters to help a person rise out of a chair.

asthenia

listen (as-THEE-nee-uh) Weakness; lack of energy and strength.

asthma

listen (AZ-muh) A chronic disease in which the bronchial airways in the lungs become narrowed and swollen, making it difficult to breathe. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, tightness in the chest, shortness of breath, and rapid breathing. An asthma attack may be brought on by pet hair, dust, smoke, pollen, mold, exercise, cold air, or stress.

astrocyte

listen (AS-troh-site) A large, star-shaped cell that holds nerve cells in place and helps them develop and work the way they should. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell.

astrocytoma

listen (AS-troh-sy-TOH-muh) A tumor that begins in the brain or spinal cord in small, star-shaped cells called astrocytes.

asymmetry

listen (ay-SIH-meh-tree) Lack or absence of balanced proportions between parts of a thing.

asymptomatic

listen (AY-sim-toh-MA-tik) Having no signs or symptoms of disease.

asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

listen (AY-sim-toh-MA-tik in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee PROS-tuh-TY-tis) Inflammation of the prostate gland where the only symptom is the presence of white blood cells in the prostate fluid.

AT/RT

An aggressive cancer of the central nervous system, kidney, or liver that occurs in very young children. Also called ATT/RHT and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

AT7519M

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. AT7519M blocks enzymes needed for cells to divide. It is a type of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Also called CDK inhibitor AT7519M.

AT9283

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It blocks enzymes (Aurora kinases) involved in cell division and may kill cancer cells. AT9283 is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor. Also called Aurora kinase inhibitor AT9283.

atamestane

listen (uh-TA-meh-stayn) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Atamestane blocks the production of the hormone estrogen in the body. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiestrogens.

ataxia

listen (uh-TAK-see-uh) Loss of muscle coordination.

ataxia-telangiectasia

listen (uh-TAK-see-uh-teh-LAN-jee-ek-TAY-zhuh) A rare, inherited, progressive, degenerative disease of childhood that causes loss of muscle control, a weakened immune system, and an increased risk of cancer.

ataxic gait

listen (uh-TAK-sik gayt) Awkward, uncoordinated walking.

atelectasis

listen (A-teh-LEK-tuh-sis) Failure of the lung to expand (inflate) completely. This may be caused by a blocked airway, a tumor, general anesthesia, pneumonia or other lung infections, lung disease, or long-term bedrest with shallow breathing. Sometimes called a collapsed lung.

atezolizumab

(A-teh-zoh-LIZ-yoo-mab) A drug used to treat urothelial cancer (a type of bladder cancer) that has advanced or spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose disease got worse during or after treatment with anticancer drugs that included platinum. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Atezolizumab binds to a protein called PD-L1, which is found on some cancer cells. Atezolizumab may block this protein and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Also called Tecentriq.

athymic nude mouse

listen (ay-THY-mik nood …) A type of laboratory mouse that is hairless, lacks a normal thymus gland, and has a defective immune system because of a genetic mutation. Athymic nude mice are often used in cancer research because they do not reject tumor cells, from mice or other species.

atiprimod

listen (uh-TIH-prih-mod) A substance being studied in the treatment of certain multiple myelomas and other advanced cancers. Atiprimod may block the growth of tumors and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Atiprimod is a type of signal transduction inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called azaspirane and SK&F106615.

ATLL

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is marked by bone and skin lesions, high calcium levels, and enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Also called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

ATN-161

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. ATN-161 may prevent the spread of tumor cells and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent.

ATN-224

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. ATN-224 also blocks enzymes that cells need to divide and grow, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of superoxide dismutase inhibitor. Also called SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224.

atom

listen (A-tum) The smallest part of a substance that cannot be broken down chemically. Each atom has a nucleus (center) made up of protons (positive particles) and neutrons (particles with no charge). Electrons (negative particles) move around the nucleus. Atoms of different elements contain different numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

atorvastatin

listen (uh-TOR-vuh-STA-tin) The active ingredient in a drug used to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood and to prevent stroke, heart attack, and angina (chest pain). It is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Atorvastatin blocks an enzyme that helps make cholesterol in the body. It also causes an increase in the breakdown of cholesterol. It is a type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and a type of statin.

atorvastatin calcium

listen (uh-TOR-vuh-STA-tin KAL-see-um) A drug used to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood and to prevent stroke, heart attack, and angina (chest pain). It is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Atorvastatin calcium blocks an enzyme that helps make cholesterol in the body. It also causes an increase in the breakdown of cholesterol. It is a type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and a type of statin. Also called Lipitor.

ATP

A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA. ATP made in the laboratory is being studied in patients with advanced solid tumors to see if it can decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength. Also called adenosine triphosphate.

ATRA

listen A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. ATRA is made in the body from vitamin A and helps cells to grow and develop, especially in the embryo. A form of ATRA made in the laboratory is put on the skin to treat conditions such as acne and is taken by mouth to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (a fast-growing cancer in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow). ATRA is being studied in the prevention and treatment of other types of cancer. Also called all-trans retinoic acid, retinoic acid, tretinoin, and vitamin A acid.

atrasentan

listen (A-truh-SEN-tan) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called endothelin-1 protein receptor antagonists.

atropine sulfate

listen (A-troh-peen SUL-fayt) A drug used to block nerve stimulation of muscles and glands and relax smooth muscles. It is also used to increase heart rate, reduce secretions, and treat the effects of certain poisons. It is a type of antimuscarinic agent and a type of tropane alkaloid.

atropine suppression test

listen (A-troh-peen suh-PREH-shun ) A test used to help find out if secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (a protein released by the pancreas) is normal or caused by a tumor. A drug called atropine sulfate is injected into the patients vein and level of pancreatic polypeptide in the blood is measured. If there is a tumor, the injection will not change the level of pancreatic polypeptide. If there is no tumor, the level of pancreatic polypeptide will drop.

ATT/RHT

An aggressive cancer of the central nervous system, kidney, or liver that occurs in very young children. Also called AT/RT and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

attending physician

listen (uh-TEN-ding fih-ZIH-shun) A medical doctor who is responsible for the overall care of a patient in a hospital or clinic setting. An attending physician may also supervise and teach medical students, interns, and residents involved in the patients care.

attenuated

listen (uh-TEN-yoo-way-ted) Weakened or thinned. Attenuated strains of disease-causing bacteria and viruses are often used as vaccines. The weakened strains are used as vaccines because they stimulate a protective immune response while causing no disease or only mild disease in the person receiving the vaccine.

atypia

listen (ay-TIH-pee-uh) State of being not typical or normal. In medicine, atypia is an abnormality in cells in tissue.

atypical ductal breast hyperplasia

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul DUK-tul brest HY-per-PLAY-zhuh) A benign (not cancer) condition in which there are more cells than normal in the lining of breast ducts and the cells look abnormal under a microscope. Having atypical ductal breast hyperplasia increases the risk of breast cancer. Also called ADH and atypical ductal hyperplasia.

atypical ductal hyperplasia

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul DUK-tul HY-per-PLAY-zhuh) A benign (not cancer) condition in which there are more cells than normal in the lining of breast ducts and the cells look abnormal under a microscope. Having atypical ductal hyperplasia increases the risk of breast cancer. Also called ADH and atypical ductal breast hyperplasia.

atypical glandular cells

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul GLAN-juh-ler sels) A finding of abnormal cells in a Pap test. The glandular cells come from the inner part of the cervix or the lining of the uterus. This finding may be a sign of cancer or other serious condition, and more testing may be needed. Also called AGC.

atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul GLAN-juh-ler sels UN-ser-tun sig-NIH-fih-kunts) A term that has been used to describe abnormal cells that come from glands in the walls of the cervix (the lower, narrow end of the uterus). These abnormal cells are found in a small number of Pap smears (a procedure used to detect cervical cancer) and may be a sign of more serious lesions or cancer. The term used now is atypical glandular cells. Also called AGUS and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance.

atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul GLAN-juh-ler sels UN-deh-TER-mind sig-NIH-fih-kunts) A term that has been used to describe abnormal cells that come from glands in the walls of the cervix (the lower, narrow end of the uterus). These abnormal cells are found in a small number of Pap smears (a procedure used to detect cervical cancer) and may be a sign of more serious lesions or cancer. The term used now is atypical glandular cells. Also called AGUS and atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance.

atypical hyperplasia

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul HY-per-PLAY-zhuh) A benign (not cancer) condition in which cells look abnormal under a microscope and are increased in number.

atypical lobular breast hyperplasia

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul LAH-byoo-ler brest HY-per-PLAY-zhuh) A benign (not cancer) condition in which there are more cells than normal in the breast lobules and the cells look abnormal under a microscope. Having atypical lobular breast hyperplasia increases the risk of breast cancer. Also called ALH and atypical lobular hyperplasia.

atypical lobular hyperplasia

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul LAH-byoo-ler HY-per-PLAY-zhuh) A benign (not cancer) condition in which there are more cells than normal in the breast lobules and the cells look abnormal under a microscope. Having atypical lobular hyperplasia increases the risk of breast cancer. Also called ALH and atypical lobular breast hyperplasia.

atypical mole

listen (ay-TIH-pih-kul mole) A type of mole that looks different from a common mole. Several different types of moles are called atypical. Atypical moles are often larger than common moles and have regular or ragged or blurred borders that are not easy to see. Colors of atypical moles may be the same as the rest of the skin, or lighter, darker, or uneven. Parts or all of the mole may be raised above the skin surface. It is rare, but some atypical moles can develop into melanoma (a type of skin cancer). An atypical mole is sometimes called a Spitz nevus, a congenital nevus, a birthmark, or a dysplastic nevus.

atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul SKWAY-mus sels UN-deh-TER-mind sig-NIH-fih-kunts) A finding of abnormal cells in the tissue that lines the outer part of the cervix. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance is the most common abnormal finding in a Pap test. It may be a sign of infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It may also be a sign of a benign (not cancer) growth, such as a cyst or polyp or, in menopausal women, of low hormone levels. More testing, such as an HPV test, may be needed. Also called ASC-US and ASCUS.

atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade lesion

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul SKWAY-mus sels, KA-not ek-SKLOOD hy-grayd LEE-zhun) A finding of abnormal cells in a Pap test. It means there are abnormal squamous cells in the tissue that lines the outer part of the cervix. Atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade lesion may be a sign of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), which may become cervical cancer if untreated. More testing may be needed. Also called ASC-H.

atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor

listen (AY-TIH-pih-kul TAYR-uh-toyd/RAB-doyd TOO-mer) An aggressive cancer of the central nervous system, kidney, or liver that occurs in very young children. Also called AT/RT and ATT/RHT.

auditory

listen (AW-duh-TOR-ee) Having to do with the ear and the sense of hearing.

auditory brain stem response test

listen (AW-duh-TOR-ee brayn stem reh-SPONTS ) A test used to detect some types of hearing loss, such as hearing loss caused by injury or tumors that affect nerves involved in hearing. Electrodes are placed on the head and certain tones or clicking sounds are made. The electrodes measure nerve signals in the brain when it reacts to the sounds. Also called ABR test, BAER test, and brain stem auditory evoked response test.

Augmentin

listen (awg-MEN-tin) A drug used to treat bacterial infections. Adding the chemical clavulanate potassium to the antibiotic amoxicillin increases the amount of time the antibiotic stays active in the body. Augmentin is a type of combination antibiotic. Also called amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium.

augmerosen

listen (awg-MEH-roh-sen) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of a protein that makes cancer cells live longer and by making them more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide. Also called bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139, Genasense, and oblimersen sodium.

auricular

listen (aw-RIH-kyoo-ler) Having to do with the ear.

Aurimmune

listen (AW-rih-MYOON) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Aurimmune is made in the laboratory by binding a cancer-killing protein called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to the surface of very tiny particles of gold. These TNF-gold particles may kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue. Also called colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factor and TNF-bound colloidal gold.

Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor GSK1070916A

listen (uh-ROR-uh KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter ) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It blocks certain enzymes (Aurora kinases) involved in cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor. Also called GSK1070916A.

Aurora kinase inhibitor AT9283

listen (uh-ROR-uh KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter…) A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It blocks enzymes (Aurora kinases) involved in cell division and may kill cancer cells. Aurora kinase inhibitor AT9283 is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor. Also called AT9283.

aurotherapy

listen (AW-roh-THAYR-uh-pee) A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The gold salts stop cells from releasing chemicals that can harm tissues. Also called chrysotherapy and gold therapy.

autoantibody

listen (AW-toh-AN-tee-BAH-dee) An antibody made against substances formed by a persons own body. Autoantibodies can directly destroy cells that have the substances on them or can make it easier for other white blood cells to destroy them. Some autoimmune diseases are caused by autoantibodies.

autoclave

listen (AW-toh-KLAYV) A device that uses steam under high pressure to sterilize medical and laboratory supplies and equipment.

autoclave-resistant factor

listen (AW-toh-klayv-reh-ZIH-stunt FAK-ter) A substance found in soybeans that may slow down or stop the spread of cancer. This substance does not break down in an autoclave (a device that uses steam under high pressure to sterilize medical and laboratory supplies and equipment).

autoimmune disease

listen (AW-toh-ih-MYOON dih-ZEEZ) A condition in which the body recognizes its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them.

autoimmune enteropathy

listen (AW-toh-ih-MYOON en-teh-RAH-puh-thee) A rare disease in which certain cells in the intestine are destroyed by a patients immune system. It causes severe, chronic, diarrhea and usually occurs in children.

autoimmune hemolytic anemia

listen (AW-toh-ih-MYOON hee-moh-LIH-tik uh-NEE-mee-uh) A condition in which the bodys immune system stops red blood cells from forming or causes them to clump together. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia can occur in patients who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Also called immune complex hemolytic anemia and immunohemolytic anemia.

autoimmune thyroiditis

listen (AW-toh-ih-MYOON thy-roy-DY-tis) An autoimmune condition of the thyroid gland (a gland located beneath the larynx). It is caused by the formation of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and it usually causes hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone). Symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, depression, and the inability to exercise. It is more common in females and can run in families. Also called Hashimoto disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis.

autologous

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus) Taken from an individual’s own tissues, cells, or DNA.

autologous bone marrow

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus bone MAYR-oh) In transplantation, refers to a person’s own bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of most large bones that produces white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

autologous bone marrow transplantation

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus bone MAYR-oh tranz-plan-TAY-shun) A procedure in which bone marrow is removed from a person, stored, and then given back to the person after intensive treatment.

autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus meh-ZEN-kih-mul ) A product that is made of special stem cells taken from a patients bone marrow and grown in the laboratory. After a patients bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow. Autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010 has been studied in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during stem cell transplant in patients receiving treatment for cancer. Autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010 is used in cellular therapy. Also called Stromagen.

autologous lymphocyte

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus LIM-foh-site) In transplantation, refers to a persons own white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infections and other diseases.

autologous stem cell transplantation

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus … tranz-plan-TAY-shun) A procedure in which blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) are removed, stored, and later given back to the same person.

autologous tumor cell

listen (aw-TAH-luh-gus TOO-mer sel) A cancer cell from an individual’s own tumor.

autonomic nervous system

listen (AW-toh-NAH-mik NER-vus SIS-tem) The part of the nervous system that controls muscles of internal organs (such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs, stomach, and intestines) and glands (such as salivary glands and sweat glands). One part of the autonomic nervous system helps the body rest, relax, and digest food and another part helps a person fight or take flight in an emergency. Also called ANS and involuntary nervous system.

autophagy

listen (aw-TAH-fuh-jee) A normal process in which a cell destroys proteins and other substances in its cytoplasm (the fluid inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus), which may lead to cell death. Autophagy may prevent normal cells from developing into cancer cells, but it may also protect cancer cells by destroying anticancer drugs or substances taken up by them.

Avage

listen (AY-vazh) A drug used on the skin to treat several skin conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of basal cell skin cancer and basal cell nevus syndrome. Avage is related to vitamin A and is made in the laboratory. It turns on a gene that may help stop the growth of skin cancer cells. Avage is a type of synthetic retinoid. Also called tazarotene and Tazorac.

Avandia

listen (uh-VAN-dee-uh) A drug that helps control the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Avandia stops cells from growing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of thiazolidinedione and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called rosiglitazone maleate.

avascular necrosis

listen (ay-VAS-kyoo-ler neh-KROH-sis) A condition in which there is a loss of blood flow to bone tissue, which causes the bone to die. It is most common in the hips, knees, shoulders, and ankles. It may be caused by long-term use of steroid medicines, alcohol abuse, joint injuries, and certain diseases, such as cancer and arthritis. It may also occur at some point in time after cancer treatment that included methotrexate, bisphosphonates, or corticosteroids. Also called aseptic necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and osteonecrosis.

Avastin

listen (uh-VAS-tin) A drug used alone or with other drugs to treat certain types of cervical, colorectal, lung, kidney, ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer, and glioblastoma (a type of brain cancer). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Avastin binds to a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called bevacizumab.

Avelox

listen (A-veh-lox) A drug used to treat bacterial infections. It is a type of fluoroquinolone. Also called moxifloxacin and moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

Aventyl

listen (A-ven-til) A drug used to treat depression. It may also be used to treat panic or anxiety disorders and certain types of pain, and to help people quit smoking. Aventyl increases the levels of norepinephrine and other natural chemicals in the brain. This helps improve mood and may reduce a persons craving for nicotine. It is a type of tricyclic antidepressant. Also called nortriptyline and Pamelor.

Avita

listen (uh-VEE-tuh) A topical preparation of tretinoin that is used to treat acne. Tretinoin is a form of vitamin A.

AVN944

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks cells from making DNA and RNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor.

Avodart

listen (A-vuh-dart) A drug used to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate gland. It is being studied in the treatment of male hair loss and prostate cancer. Avodart blocks enzymes the body needs to make male sex hormones. It is a type of 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. Also called dutasteride and GG745.

avoidance

listen (uh-VOY-dunts) The act of staying away from people, places, and thoughts that may cause anxiety, pain, or unpleasant feelings. Some types of cancer-related avoidance include refusing to accept a cancer diagnosis or get treatment, and using alcohol or other drugs to forget about having cancer.

axilla

listen (ak-SIH-luh) The underarm or armpit.

axillary

listen (AK-sih-LAYR-ee) Pertaining to the armpit area, including the lymph nodes that are located there.

axillary dissection

listen (AK-sih-LAYR-ee dy-SEK-shun) Surgery to remove lymph nodes found in the armpit region. Also called axillary lymph node dissection.

axillary lymph node

listen (AK-sih-LAYR-ee limf node) A lymph node in the armpit region that drains lymph from the breast and nearby areas.

axillary lymph node dissection

listen (AK-sih-LAYR-ee limf node dy-SEK-shun) Surgery to remove lymph nodes found in the armpit region. Also called axillary dissection.

axitinib

listen (AK-sih-TIH-nib) A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (the most common type of kidney cancer). It is used in patients who have not gotten better with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Axitinib blocks the action of proteins called growth factor receptors and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Inlyta.

Ayurveda

listen (i-yer-VAY-duh) A medical system from India that has been used for thousands of years. The goal is to cleanse the body and to restore balance to the body, mind, and spirit. It uses diet, herbal medicines, exercise, meditation, breathing, physical therapy, and other methods. It is a type of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapy. Also called Ayurvedic medicine.

Ayurvedic medicine

listen (I-yer-VAY-dik MEH-dih-sin) A medical system from India that has been used for thousands of years. The goal is to cleanse the body and to restore balance to the body, mind, and spirit. It uses diet, herbal medicines, exercise, meditation, breathing, physical therapy, and other methods. It is a type of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapy. Also called Ayurveda.

azacitidine

listen (ay-zuh-SY-tih-deen) A drug that is used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called Mylosar and Vidaza.

azaspirane

listen (AY-zuh-SPEER-ayn) A substance being studied in the treatment of certain multiple myelomas and other advanced cancers. Azaspirane may block the growth of tumors and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Azaspirane is a type of signal transduction inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called atiprimod and SK&F106615.

azathioprine sodium

listen (AY-zuh-THY-oh-preen SOH-dee-um) A drug used to keep a patient from rejecting a transplanted kidney. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that does not get better with other types of treatment. Azathioprine sodium blocks the growth of white blood cells and the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. It is a type of immunosuppressant.

AZD0530

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. AZD0530 blocks enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

AZD2171

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. AZD2171 may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called cediranib maleate and Recentin.

AZD2281

A drug used to treat advanced ovarian cancer caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is used in patients who have already received other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. AZD2281 blocks an enzyme involved in many cell functions, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. AZD2281 may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of targeted therapy agent and a type of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Also called Lynparza, olaparib, and PARP inhibitor AZD2281.

AZD6244

A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. AZD6244 blocks proteins needed for cell growth and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of protein kinase inhibitor. Also called MEK inhibitor AZD6244 and selumetinib.

azoospermia

(AY-zoh-oh-SPER-mee-uh) A condition in which there are no sperm in the semen when a man ejaculates. This may be because the man does not make sperm or because the sperm is blocked from entering the semen. Azoospermia may be caused by hormone problems, certain genetic conditions, previous vasectomy or other surgery, or other conditions. It may also be caused by certain cancer treatments. Azoospermia can cause infertility (the inability to produce children).

azoxymethane

listen (ay-ZOK-see-MEH-thayn) A substance that is used in cancer research to cause colon tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment.

AZQ

An anticancer drug that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and kill cancer cells in the central nervous system. Also called diaziquone.

AZT

A drug that inhibits the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. Also called zidovudine.